600 BC: Susrata used skin flaps to replace the noses of individuals who’d had them cut off as punishment
2nd century: Hua-To replaced sick organs with healthy organs in hopes of making the patients’ lives better
3rd Century: A patient with gangrene had his cancerous leg replaced with that of a dead man
16th Century: Gaspere Tagliacozzi tried to improve the nose graft techniques previously made by Susrata
1501: The first bone replacement from a dog’s bone was executed
1778: Scottish surgeon John Hunter first used the word transplant
1804: Guiseppe Boronio discovered limitations of xenotransplants when he observed cow-to-mare transplant failures
1875: cheek replacements taken from a rabbit were transplanted into a patient with success
1889: Charles-Edouard Brown-Sequard injected himself with an extract of crushed testicles from a guinea pig and dog. He reported that the injections restored his physical strength. From this success many different extract made of crushed organs have been used for the treatment of different diseases
1905: the 1st kidney transplant from a rabbit was implanted into a child who survived 16 days.
1906: Mathieu Jaboulay began the technique of implanting kidneys of pigs into humans which all had to be removed after 3 days. He concluded that grafts from different species promoted blood coagulation.
1920-1951: Testicles and ovaries were implanted from apes into over 2000 patients
1963-64: Kidneys from monkeys and chimpanzees were implanted in the
1964: A patient was implanted with a kidney of a chimpanzee and survived 9 months without rejection of the kidney. The patient did not die because of the transplant. This gave evidence that xenotransplant were feasible.
1964: the first heart transplant was implanted from a chimpanzee and survived 90 mins.
1968: Lester Bryant used a porcine lung during cardiac surgery for the oxygenation of blood.
1968-1996: there have been several heart xenotransplants from sheep, chimpanzees, baboon, and pig donors. Some patients died immediately. The longest survival was 20 days.
1969: The 1st liver xenotransplant was taken from a chimpanzee and the survival time was 9 days.
1983: Robert Ersek used pig skin for the treatment of burns
1992: The longest survival of a liver transplant patient was 70 days.
1995-1997: Fetal porcine neural cells were implanted into the brains of 12 patients with Parkinson’s disease. Other trials were also completed to try to treat
1997- Present: Possibility of passing PERV from porcine to human tissues during transplant has been a huge problem.
2000: The 1st successful extracorporeal hepatic supports with transgenic livers from swine were used to bridge the transplantation of a human liver
2001: Islets from piglets were implanted as treatment for type- 1 diabetes.
Of 7 patients treated only one no longer needed insulin injections. The transplants of the other patients had no effect.
2002:Birth of double knock-out miniature pigs occurred.This resulted in successful transgenesis and cloning. The immunologic issue of hyperacute rejection was resolved.