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David Raizman, The History of Modern Design 2e

London, Laurence King Ltd. and Upper Saddle River (NJ),Pearson, 2010



Filling the gap for an extensively illustrated history of modern design, this introduction provides a balanced chronological survey of decorative arts, industrial design and graphic design from the eighteenth through the twentieth centuries. Focusing on the appreciation of design as a creative activity, as well as an enterprise conditioned by economic, technological and social history, Raizman includes the study of products and furnishing designed for mass consumption, and examines the social context for the democratization of culture.


New to this Edition

The second edition of the History of Modern Design includes several new illustrations, an expanded bibliography and timeline, and a larger section on contemporary design. In addition, the text has been organized into six rather than five parts in order to separate the early nineteenth from the eighteenth century and to present concepts relating to that material more clearly. A number of illustrations replaced existing ones to better communicate particular qualities of design in terms of techniques, or to relate with material presented elsewhere. New sections, such as Barcelona in the later nineteenth century, have also been added. Other new features include the placement of the American System of Manufacture in Chapter 3, the inclusion of additional examples of fashion and textiles into each part of the text, and placing the discussion of the Arts and Crafts Movement first in Part II rather than after the Aesthetic Movement and Art Nouveau. An effort has been made to both illustrate as well as to discuss objects in interiors rather than in isolation, so that their relation to lifestyles and lived experience becomes a more relevant and important part of their context. Also, a significant amount of new material has been added to reflect recent trends and perspectives in design, including digital technology, information, and interactivity.



*     Comprehensive coverage of history of design—Including the eighteenth century to present day.

--- Enables students to appreciate the continuity as well as innovation in the study of modern design, so that they can recognize the persistence of craft and the direct manipulation of materials by artists and designers.

*    Decorative arts, graphic design and industrial design.

--- Enables students to appreciate design and to examine the relationship of both unique and everyday objects and allows them to see broader connections among them.

*    Products and furnishings for mass consumption.

--- Enables students to examine the social context for the democratization of culture involving both the mechanisms for stimulating mass appeal, as well as the meanings that consumers give to products.

*    Economic, social and political considerations.

--- Provides students with an analysis of design, its value and its meaning within society.

*    Continuity vs. change

--- Provides a view of the legacy of craft production, the creative use of natural materials and new materials, the discourse revolving around the duality between artist and artisan and attempts to regulate and inform the market.

*    Perspectives

--- Provides students with a thoughtful consideration of multiple perspectives, as well as an expanded view of the boundaries of art historical investigation.

*    Age of Exploration—Addressing the economic and cultural interaction between east and west.

--- Familiarizes students with the basis of cross-cultural fertilization.


Instructor Manual

An Instructor Manual is available for faculty teaching from History of Modern Design 2e. The Manual is being prepared by Linda Shanahan, PhD, at the Columbus College of Art & Design in Columbus, Ohio. It contains chapter outlines, examination and essay questions, and an overview of online resources in addition to the bibliography and 'suggested readings' sections of the 2nd edition. The online resources are also ideal for generating in-class discussions and video presentations to supplement powerpoints.




Jamie Brassett, MA Course Director and Subject Leader, Central St Martin's:

"With a recontextualization of the subject, reworking of the book’s narrative structure and the inclusion of ways in which the concept and power of design has mutated in the seven years since its first publication, this book remains an essential addition to the bookshelves of designers, design students and those for whom design-thinking is now an important part of their work."

Elizabeth Guffey, Professor of Art History, School of Humanities, Purchase College, State University of New York, and Editor, Design and Culture

 “Since its publication in 2003, David Raizman's A History of Modern Design has assumed landmark status within design studies. Synthesizing design, technology, art history and social history from the mid-eighteent through early twenty-first centuries, Raizman builds a cogent argument for studying design as both a production-based discipline and an intellectually-driven profession.”


Maria Buszek, Assistant Professor of Art History, School of Liberal Arts, Kansas City Institute of Art

 “David Raizman's -History of Modern Design- is a truly unique textbook in the field. Incorporating architecture, graphic design, product design, typography, Studio Craft, furniture design and fashion design, seamlessly contextualized through both the "fine arts" canon and popular culture of their respective era, this book is an invaluable resource for not only
understanding design history, but its relevance to cultural history. The host of new illustrations and up-to-the-minute writing on contemporary issues in design only improve upon Raizman's winning approach.”


Gabriel P. Weisberg, Professor of Art History, Design and Graphic Art History, University of Minnesota

 "The new edition of David Raizman’s History of Modern Design continues to build on the excellence of the earlier publication. Functioning as a superb overview of the ways in which design issues affected the modern world  (from the eighteenth century until now) Raizman has successfully created a book that can stand as the foremost text for those well versed in design history while also presenting the general public with a comprehensive, informed, extremely well illustrated volume that will stand the test of time. It is the type of work that is often needed but few authors ever achieve as well-balanced and as insightful a text as found in this beautifully produced volume."


Ida Engholm, Associate Professor, Danish Centre for Design Research, The Royal Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Copenhagen.

"This book offers a fascinating and authoritative cross-disciplinary description of the past 250 years of design history. The text moves effortlessly between typography, graphic design, fashion, furniture design, architecture, and many other disciplines. Throughout the book, Raizman offers insightful perspectives based on contemporary art movements and works. It is exemplary because of its balanced prioritisation of historical events and factors and its rich contextualisation. It is an excellent textbook for teachers and students in universities, academies and design schools and a fine introduction for readers with an interest in design, with whom it has already, deservedly, found an audience.

This is a reference work that reads like a novel. It offers a comprehensive, exciting, authoritative, thorough and richly illustrated review of the past 250 years of design history. This book offers fascinating and insightful descriptions of the historical and cultural contexts of design and marks a refreshing change from the traditional art history chronicles of changing styles. On several levels, the book contributes to a broader understanding of the meaning of design practice in relation to technological, economic, and social dimensions and of all the aspects concerning industrialisation, production, reforms, industrial capitalism, mechanised mass-production, user-adaptation, popular culture and mass culture that influence our understanding of design today. The book has already, deservedly, become a foundation and keystone of todays studies in design history."


Table of Contents

Preface 8

Acknowledgments 10

Introduction: Thinking about Design 11

Products, Technology, and Progress 11

Designers and the Expansion of Design 12

Discourse 13



Demand, Supply, and Design (1700—1800)    15

Introduction to Part I 16

1 Royal Demand and the Control of Production 17

State-owned Manufactories 17

Artists and Craftsmen 20

Porcelain 22

The Guilds 23

The Printer’s Art 28

2 Entrepreneurial Efforts in Britain and Elsewhere 31

Design in an Expanding Market 31

Wedgwood and Antiquity 33

Commodities and Fashion 36

The United States 38

Popular Literature and the Freedom of the Press 39



Expansion and Taste (1801—1865)                   40

Introduction to Part II 42

3 Growing Pains: Expanding Industry in the Early Nineteenth Century 43

A Culture of Industry and Progress 43

New Materials and Processes 44

Beyond the Printed Page 50

Wallpaper and Fabric Printing 52

The American System 54

4 Design, Society, and Standards 57

Early Design Reform 57

Industry and its Discontents 58

Reform and the Gothic Revival 59

Henry Cole and the “Cole Group” 61

The Great Exhibition of 1851 63

Images for All 70

Popular Graphics in the United States 74

A Balance Sheet of Reform 76

Conclusion 77



Arts, Crafts, and Machines — Industrialization: Hopes and Fears (1866—1914)    79

Introduction to Part III 80

5 The Joy of Work 81

Ruskin, Morris, and the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain 81

Morris and Socialism 85

Morris as Publisher 85

The Influence of William Morris in Britain 88

The Arts and Crafts Movement in the United States 91

Printing in the United States 98

Chicago and Frank Lloyd Wright 99

6 The Equality of the Arts 103

Design Reform and the Aesthetic Movement 103

Books, Illustration, and Type 110

The Aesthetic Movement in the United States 113

Dress 118

Design Reform in France: L’Art Nouveau 120

Art Nouveau in Print and in Public 125

Glasgow: Charles Rennie Mackintosh 130

Austria 131

Belgium 136

Munich 138

Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, and the Vernacular 140

Italy and Spain 143

7 Mechanization and Industry 147

Design and the Workplace 147

Germany 148

The American System of Manufacture and Fordism 151

Developments in Merchandising, Printing, and Advertising 154

Conclusion 155



After World War I: Art, Industry, and Utopias (1918—1944)     157

Introduction to Part IV 158

8 Paris and Art Moderne (Art Deco) Before and After World War I 161

Furniture and Modern Art 162

Glass and Metal 166

The Paris Exposition of 1925 172

9 “Modernism”: Design, Utopia, and Technology 181

Futurism 181

De Stijl 184

Constructivism 189

The Bauhaus 196

Beyond the Bauhaus 204

The Printing Industry and the “New Typography” 206

Jan Tschichold and the New Typography 208

Britain and Modern Design 214

Scandinavia and Modern Design 219

10 Design, Industry, and Advertising in the United States 223

Industrial Design and Fordism 228

Advertising, Art, and the Selling of Modern Design in the United States 229

The United States and International Modernism 237

Streamlining 240

The 1939 New York World’s Fair 242

Photography and Graphic Design 244

Industrial Design and Austerity 248

Graphic Design During World War II 251

Conclusion 252



Humanism and Luxury: International Modernism and Mass Culture after World War II (1945—1960)          255

Introduction to Part V 256

11 Modernism After World War II: From Theory to Practice 260

Promoting Postwar Design: Art Direction and the New Advertising 267

Graphic Design and Technical Information 273

Scandinavia and Britain 275

Italy 283

Germany 288

The International Graphic Style (Die Neue Grafik) 291

Means and Ends 296

Japan 298

Design and Corporate Culture 301

Trademarks and Beyond 302

12 Design and Mass Appeal: A Culture of Consumption            306

Detroit: Transportation as Symbol 308

Critics of Styling 313

Resorts and Luxury 314

Housing: Suburbia, Domesticity, and Conformity 317

Beyond High and Low Art: Revisiting the Critique of Mass Culture 322

Conclusion 325



Progress, Protest, and Pluralism 1961—2010              326

Introduction to Part VI 328

13 New Materials, New Products 330

Plastics and their Progeny 331

Product Housing 335

Sports: Equipment and Progress 338

Visual Identity, Information, and Art Direction 338

Laminated Materials 345

Nature and Craft 346

14 Dimensions of Mass Culture 349

Mass Design and the Home 351

Mass Design: The Fringes 353

Pop, Protest, and Counterculture 355

Graphics and the Underground 356

Anti-Design in Italy 358

Radical Reform: Technology, Safety, and the Environment 362

15 Politics, Pluralism, and Postmodernism 367

Design and Postmodernism 369

Postmodern Products 370

Pluralism and Resistance 374

Hi-Tech 377

The Expanding Definition and Role of Design 378

16 Design in Context: An Act of Balance 381

Consumers 381

Reform and Social Responsibility 387

Design, Safety, and Terror 391

Production Technology: Meanings of Miniaturization 393

Design and Softness 396

Materials Technology and Softness 396

Lifestyle 400

Politics, Technology, and the Media 400

Graphic Design in a Digital Age 401

Craft: The Persistence of Process 406

Design and Continuity: Creativity, Responsibility, and Resilience 408


Timeline 409

Further Reading 412

Bibliography 417

Credits 422

Index 424