MCP HAHNEMANN UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF ARTS & SCIENCES

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II EXAMINATION 2

March 16, 1999


DIRECTIONS FOR QUESTIONS 1-10: DARKEN THE "A" CIRCLE, IF THE STATEMENT IS TRUE, OR THE "B" CIRCLE, IF THE STATEMENT IS FALSE. (ONE POINT EACH)

Considering the events associated with inspiration,

  1. In order to fill the lungs with air, the alveolar pressure must be decreased relative to the atmospheric pressure.


  2. The contraction of the respiratory diaphragm increases the vertical dimension of the thorax, increasing the volume of the thorax.


  3. The internal intercostal muscles contract during inspiration.


  4. Inspiration is dependent upon the contraction of the inspiratory muscles.


Considering the events of the neural control of respiration,

  1. The apneustic area is located in the medulla.


  2. The autorhythmicity of breathing is due to the intrinsic excitability of the neurons of the expiration center.


  3. The pneumotaxic area prolongs inspiration.


  4. The carotid and aortic bodies contain important chemoreceptors sensitive to blood pH.


  5. The respiratory diaphragm is innervated by the intercostal nerves.


  6. The expiratory center is inactive during normal, quiet breathing.


DIRECTIONS FOR QUESTIONS 11-14: MATCH THE NUMBERED STATEMENTS BELOW WITH THE APPROPRIATE ITEMS. (TWO POINTS EACH)

    1. Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure
    2. Blood Hydrostatic Pressure
    3. Interstitial Fluid Hydrostatic Pressure
    4. Interstitial Fluid Osmotic Pressure

  1. Which pressure has the greatest effect in promoting filtration?


  2. Which pressure has the greatest effect in promoting reabsorption?



    1. It would decrease.
    2. It would increase.
    3. There would be no change.

  3. If liver disease leads to a reduction in the levels of plasma proteins in the blood, how would the bulk flow of fluid from the blood to the interstitial fluid change?


  4. If plasma proteins were to leave the capillaries and enter the interstitial fluid, how would the bulk flow of fluid from the blood to the interstitial fluid change?

DIRECTIONS FOR QUESTIONS 15-45: SELECT THE SINGLE, BEST ANSWER AND DARKER THE CORRESPONDING CIRCLE ON YOUR ANSWER SHEET. (TWO POINTS EACH)

  1. Each lung is ventilated by a


    1. primary bronchus.
    2. secondary bronchus.
    3. tertiary bronchus.
    4. respiratory bronchiole.
    5. terminal bronchiole.


  2. Which of the following statements regarding the bronchial tree is TRUE?


    1. The epithelium decreases in height as you proceed from the trachea toward the terminal bronchioles.
    2. Cartilage gradually replaces smooth muscle as the structural support as you approach the terminal bronchioles.
    3. No bronchioles are capable of gas exchange.
    4. An aspirated "beer nut" would most likely be lodged in the left primary bronchus.
    5. A bronchopulmonary segment is ventilated by one secondary bronchus.


  3. The laryngopharynx


    1. serves only a respiratory function.
    2. contains the true vocal folds (cords).
    3. is the location of the pharyngeal tonsils.
    4. is posterior to the trachea.
    5. extends from the level of the hyoid bone to the cricoid cartilage.


  4. Which of the following structures is NOT found within the hilus of the lung?


    1. Lymphatic vessels
    2. Pulmonary vein
    3. Pulmonary artery
    4. Tertiary bronchus
    5. Autonomic nerves


  5. Which of the following is NOT a part of the respiratory membrane?


    1. Capillary endothelium
    2. Alveolar basement membrane
    3. Smooth muscle cells
    4. Capillary basement membrane
    5. Type I alveolar cells


  6. The lungs will collapse if the


    1. atmospheric pressure is less than alveolar pressure.
    2. atmospheric and alveolar pressure are equal.
    3. atmospheric pressure is greater than alveolar pressure.
    4. intrapleural pressure is less than alveolar pressure.
    5. intrapleural pressure is greater than alveolar pressure.


  7. The exchange of gases between the alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries is called


    1. pulmonary ventilation.
    2. external respiration.
    3. internal respiration.
    4. airway resistance.
    5. compliance.


  8. Which of the following statements regarding normal, quiet breathing is FALSE?


    1. Tidal volume typically equals 500 mL.
    2. Muscles of expiration are NOT used.
    3. Muscles of inspiration are used.
    4. All the inspired air reaches the alveoli.
    5. Dr. Haroian's anatomical dead space is greater than average because of his big Armenian nose.


  9. Which of the following statements regarding the lungs is FALSE?


    1. The base of the lung rests on the respiratory diaphragm.
    2. Both lungs have an oblique fissure.
    3. The apex of each lung extends into the neck.
    4. The hilus of the lung is located on the costal surface of the lung.
    5. The pleural membranes secrete a serous fluid.


  10. During normal, quiet expiration, the


    1. thoracic volume increases.
    2. alveolar pressure increases.
    3. intrapleural pressure decreases.
    4. diaphragm contracts.
    5. muscles of expiration contract.


  11. Which of the following bones does NOT contain paranasal air sinuses?


    1. Frontal
    2. Ethmoid
    3. Nasal
    4. Maxillary
    5. Sphenoid


  12. Which of the following bones contributes to the bony nasal septum?


    1. Vomer
    2. Nasal
    3. Sphenoid
    4. Maxilla
    5. More than one of the above bones contributes to the bony nasal septum.


  13. Which of the following structures is a part of the conduction portion of the respiratory system?


    1. Alveoli
    2. Terminal bronchioles
    3. Alveolar ducts
    4. Respiratory bronchioles
    5. None of the above


  14. Surfactant is secreted by


    1. the parietal pleura.
    2. the visceral pleura.
    3. the type I alveolar cells.
    4. the type II alveolar cells.
    5. a serous membrane.


  15. Smooth muscle contributes to the structure of the


    1. respiratory membrane.
    2. respiratory bronchiole.
    3. terminal bronchiole.
    4. alveolar ducts.
    5. alveoli.


  16. Calculate the expiratory reserve volume from the following data:

              Tidal volume = 525 mL
              Inspiratory reserve volume = 3175 mL
              Vital capacity = 4975 mL


    1. 1275 mL
    2. 1800 mL
    3. 2650 mL
    4. 3700 mL
    5. This calculation CAN NOT be made from the data presented.


  17. During internal respiration, CO2 diffuses into the


    1. alveoli.
    2. systemic (tissue) capillaries.
    3. interstitial fluid of the tissues.
    4. pulmonary capillaries.
    5. atmosphere.


  18. Which of the following factors has the most important influence on how much O2 combines with hemoglobin?


    1. A low, but normal hematocrit.
    2. The thickness of the respiratory membrane
    3. Fluctuations in tidal volume-alveolar ventilation
    4. Partial pressure of oxygen
    5. The surface area for gas exchange


  19. Which of the following statements regarding the transport of O2 in blood is FALSE?


    1. The higher the pO2, the more hemoglobin binds with O2.
    2. The majority of O2 in the blood is in the form of oxyhemoglobin.
    3. Oxyhemoglobin is found within plasma.
    4. O2 doesn't dissolve easily in H2O.
    5. Only dissolved O2 in the blood can diffuse from tissue capillaries into the tissue.


  20. Which of the following statements regarding CO2 transport in the blood is FALSE?


    1. The greatest amount of CO2 is transported in the blood plasma as HCO3-.
    2. During internal respiration, Cl- diffuses into the red blood cell.
    3. HbCO2 dissociates into Hb and CO2 within the pulmonary capillaries.
    4. The least amount of CO2 is transported in the blood plasma as dissolved CO2.
    5. In external respiration, CO2 is converted to HCO3-.


  21. The total cross-sectional area of the blood vessels is greatest in the


    1. arteries.
    2. arterioles.
    3. capillaries.
    4. venules.
    5. veins.


  22. The brachial, radial, renal, femoral and popliteal arteries are examples of


    1. elastic (conducting) arteries.
    2. muscular (distributing) arteries.
    3. visceral arteries.
    4. pressure arteries.
    5. None of the above.


  23. What is the Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MABP) of a person whose blood pressure is expressed as 135/90?


    1. 85 mm Hg
    2. 93 mm Hg
    3. 100 mm Hg
    4. 105 mm Hg
    5. 117 mm Hg


  24. What is the major force that propels lymph through the lymphatic vessels in the lower extremities?


    1. Gravity
    2. Blood pressure
    3. Respiratory pump
    4. Skeletal muscle pump
    5. None of the above


  25. Calculate the Net Filtration Pressure (NFP), using the following data.

              Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure = 26 mm Hg
              Blood Hydrostatic Pressure = 25 mm Hg
              Interstitial Fluid Osmotic Pressure = 1 mm Hg
              Interstitial Hydrostatic Pressure = 0 mm Hg


    1. 52 mm Hg
    2. 2 mm Hg
    3. 0 mm Hg
    4. -2 mm Hg
    5. -9 mm Hg


  26. The Net Filtration Pressure calculated in question # 39 would produce


    1. a significant amount of filtration.
    2. only a slight amount of filtration.
    3. no net movement of fluid.
    4. only a slight amount of reabsorption.
    5. a significant amount of reabsorption.


  27. In a normal individual, the Net Filtration Pressure calculated in question # 39 would typically exist at or near the


    1. arterial end of the capillary bed.
    2. middle of the capillary bed.
    3. venous end of the capillary bed.
    4. Philadelphia Navy Yards


  28. Bee stings, in persons allergic to such insect bites, may lead to


    1. anaphylactic shock.
    2. blood poisoning.
    3. hypovolemic shock.
    4. septic shock.
    5. All of the above


  29. The cardiovascular center is located in the


    1. cerebral cortex.
    2. diencephalon.
    3. medulla.
    4. midbrain.
    5. pons.


  30. Which of the following structures is NOT a part of the lymphatic system?


    1. Lymph nodes
    2. Pancreas
    3. Spleen
    4. Tonsils
    5. Thymus


  31. The major function of the __________________ is to remove expended red blood cells from the circulation.


    1. bone marrow
    2. lymph nodes
    3. spleen
    4. tonsils
    5. thymus


DIRECTIONS FOR QUESTIONS 46-55: REFER TO THE INDICATED DIAGRAMS AND DARKEN THE APPROPRIATE CIRCLES ON YOUR ANSWER SHEET. NOTE THAT TWO CIRCLES MUST BE DARKENED FOR EACH QUESTION. (TWO POINTS EACH)

FOR QUESTIONS 46-48, REFER TO THE FOLLOWING DIAGRAM:

  1. Identify the mediastinal surface of the lung.


  2. Identify the apex of the lung.


  3. Identify the cardiac notch of the lung.




FOR QUESTIONS 49-51, REFER TO THE FOLLOWING DIAGRAM:

  1. Into which region do the paranasal sinuses drain?


  2. With which region does the auditory (Eustachian) tube communicate?


  3. Indicate the laryngopharynx.




FOR QUESTIONS 42-55, REFER TO THE FOLLOWING DIAGRAM:

  1. Which structure is located at the sternal angle?


  2. Which structure is formed by a complete ring of hyaline cartilage?


  3. Which structure lies anterior to the esophagus?


  4. Which structure delivers air to one lobe of the lung?




ANSWERS

               1.  A                11.  B               21.  B               31. B                41.  B               51.  B+C
               2.  A                12.  A               22.  D               32. D               42.  A               52.  C+E
               3.  B                13.  B               23.  D               33. C                43. C               53.  A+E
               4.  A                14.  B               24.  B               34. E                44.  B               54.  B+C
               5.  B                15.  A               25.  C               35. C                45.  C               55.  B+E
               6.  B                16.  A               26.  A               36. B                46.  A+C
               7.  B                17.  E               27.  B               37. D                47.  A+B
               8.  A                18.  D               28.  D               38. D                48.  A+E
               9.  B                19.  C               29.  C               39.  C               49.  A+B
             10.  A                20.  E               30.  A               40.  C               50.  A+C