COM320/520 Study Guide

 

Chapter 1 (N.B.: the question numbers below correspond to the section numbers in Penrose and Katz.)

 

1. What are the five points that Penrose and Katz make about how science creates knowledge?

 

2a. In what sense do scientists in a given discipline constitute a community?

 

2b. What is a scientific paradigm?

 

3. What role does communication play in the practice of science?

 

4. What is the role of persuasion in scientific communication?

 

5. What is meant by the phrase "the conventions of scientific communication?"

 

6. Why does the practice of science seem to be more collaborative than it is in other fields of work?

 

 

Chapter 2 (N.B.: the question numbers below correspond to the section numbers in Penrose and Katz.)

 

1. What is the current relationship between science and technology?

 

2. What are some communication technologies that have facilitated scientific collaboration?

 

3. What are some revolutionary changes that technology has brought to the publication of science?

 

4. How has technology facilitated the communciation between scientists and the public?

 

5. What are some of the material advantages of technology for scientific communication?

 

6. In what ways has visual technology helped the advance of science?

 

7. In what ways have new media changed the way science is practiced?

 

8. What rhetorical challenges does technology pose to the producers and consumers of scientific information?

 

 

Chapter 3 (N.B.: the question numbers below correspond to the section numbers in Penrose and Katz.)

 

1. What particular communication practices help to examine and foster scientific integrity?

 

2a. What does the U.S. government's Office of Research Integrity regard as the FFP core issues?

 

2b. What historical values of scientific research undergird ethical standards for journal editors and funding agencies?

 

3a. What are the three places on a standard research report where credit is allocated?

 

3b. What are the two fundamental principles that are comprised of authorship?

 

3c. What two trends in the practice of science make the fair allocation of credit difficult?

 

4. In what ways are the social ethics of science in tension with the individualistic ethics of science?

 

5. What are the "ethical costs of communication technology" for scientists?

 

6. What are some ethical tensions between scientists' need to keep research results secret until publication and their desire to respond to urgent social needs?

 

7. In what ways does the style of science communication have an ethical dimension?

 

8. What are some ethical dimensions to conventions of a scientific style of communication?

 

 

Chapter 4 (N.B.: the question numbers below correspond to the section numbers in Penrose and Katz.)

 

1. Why is it important for scientists to know the purpose and intended audience of the journals published in their fields of research?

 

2. In what sense can a research report be called an argument?

 

3. How does the standard IMRAD format of a research report mirror the basic logic of the scientific method?

 

4. What is the difference between the framing sections and the describing sections of the IMRAD format?

 

5. How comprehensive is the description in the methods section of a research report?

 

6. What does it mean to say that the results section of a research report reduces and generalizes from the data?

 

7. What are the roles of rebuttals and qualifiers in the discussion section of an IMRAD report?

 

8. What is the function of the abstract of a research report?

 

9. What are the differences between research reports and research letters?

 

10. How do scientists actually write research reports?

 

11. How do scientists actually read research reports?

 

12. How do reviewers evaluate research reports?

 

 

Chapter 5 (N.B.: the question numbers below correspond to the section numbers in Penrose and Katz.)

 

1. What does it mean to say that scientific research is situated?

 

2. What is a review article and how does it differ from a research report?

 

3. What are the ways of locating the literature for creating a review article?

 

4. What questions should a review article answer?

 

5. What does it mean to say that a good review article synthesizes the research literature?

 

6. How are review articles organized?

 

7. What is the difference between direct and indirect citations?

 

8. How does the formating of the works cited list vary from journal to journal?

 

9. What is included in the abstract of a review article?

 

 

Chapter 7 (N.B.: the question numbers below correspond to the section numbers in Penrose and Katz.)

 

1. In what sense is a research proposal a deliberative argument?

 

2. Who reads research proposals?

 

3. What are the main components of research proposals?

 

4. What is the goal of a research proposal?

 

5. What is the goal of the background section of a research proposal?

 

6. What is the goal of the methods section of a research proposal?

 

7. What is the purpose of the abstract of a research proposal?

 

8. What is the most crucial dimension of the proposal writing process?

 

9. What do reviewers routinely use in evaluating research proposals?

 

10. What are some ways that funding agencies hold researchers accountable?

 

 

Chapter 8 (N.B.: the question numbers below correspond to the section numbers in Penrose and Katz.)

 

1. What are the three main reasons why scientists must communicate with the general public?

 

2. What is audience adaptation and what are the two special appeals needed to adapt scientific information to a general audience?

 

3. What does audience adaption through narration look like?

 

4. What does audience adaption through example look like?

 

5. What does audience adaption through definition look like?

 

6. What does audience adaption through analysis look like?

 

7. What does audience adaption through comparison look like?

 

8. What does audience adaption through graphics look like?

 

9. What is the nature of the structure of a typical scientific article for a general audience?