**SPECULATIONS ON A CONTINUUM COSMOLOGICAL
MODEL**
**DESCRIBED IN FRIEDMANN-LEMAITRE
SPACETIME**

**Conceptual Considerations**
**Moishe Garfinkle**
**(215) 951-6843**
**Philadelphia, PA
19144**

**ABSTRACT**
**The Standard Cosmological
Model has so well integrated celestial and relativistic
mechanics with particle physics into a coherent description of
the universe that it is a little less than astonishing just how
well this cosmological model is in agreement with empirical observations
on a scale from the sub-atomic to the galactic; particularly in
regard of the observable abundance of light elements. Nevertheless
certain difficulties remain including closure, horizons, smoothness
and symmetry. Reformulations of the Standard Model in terms of
various Grand Unification Theories have been proposed to address
these problems, but in fact add considerable complications to
a hitherto coherent, relatively straight-forward, concept. Moreover,
beyond these difficulties the Standard Model is intrinsically
deficient in two respects: it is murky about the very distant
past and uncertain about the very distant future.**
*******
**An alternative model
is proposed termed the Continuum Cosmological Model to address
these concerns, fully recognizing that any alternative model must
at best encompass the Standard Cosmological Model or at least
be consistent with it. This alternative model, described using
the SCM formalism, has a very profound effect on horizon, symmetry
and smoothness as related to our comoving portion of the universe,
and particularly on closure. In support of Continuum Cosmological
Model the most recent JCM submillimeter findings reveal extensive
starbirth in high redshift galaxies that cannot be fully reconciled
with the SCM because the rate of formation of a significant number
of galaxies appears to belong to a more recent universe, a conclusion
that fits comfortable into the Continuum Cosmological Model.**
*******
**The Continuum Cosmological
Model is sufficiently explicit that it can be empirically tested
by experimental observations concerning the gravitational potential
between matter and anti-matter particles. Such experiments are
seriously being considered at CERN, and perhaps conducted early in the
next decade.**
*******
**
According to the Continuum Cosmological Model**

**1) a temporal singularity
exists with zero-volume and infinite temperature;**
**2) no information whatsoever
can pass through the temporal singularity;**
**3) matter cannot exist
above the Planck temperature;**
**4) there is sufficient
mass in the vicinity of the singularity to effect closure.**
**5) no gravitational potential
exists between equivalent matter and antimatter particles;**
**6) clustering leading
to large scale structure forms prior to nucleosynthesis; and**
**7) the baryon number,
lepton number, charge number and gravitational number of the
universe are each absolutely zero.**

*******
**The annoying smoothness
in the cosmic background radiation and the bothersome large-scale
structure in galaxy distribution are examined in terms of the
Continuum Cosmological Model. Plausible explanations are presented
for the existence of the present universe without recourse to
the myriad of grand unification schemes and their exasperating
need for the CP violations that don't appears necessary in the
nuclear processes presumably required to construct the universe.**

**CONTENTS**
**1 INTRODUCTION**
**2 BACKGROUND**
**3 STANDARD COSMOLOGICAL
MODEL**
*SCM Closure Problem*
*SCM Horizon Problem*
*SCM Symmetry Problem*
*SCM Smoothness Problem*
**4 CONTINUUM COSMOLOGICAL
MODEL**
*World Form*
*Friedmann-Lemaitre
Spacetime*
*Spectral Shift*
*Singularity*
*Pseudo-Stellar Fireball*
*Planck Interface*
*Spacetime Curvature*
**5 SYNTHESIS**
*Fermiosynthesis*
*Leptosynthesis*
*Baryosynthesis*
*Baryon Symmetry Violation*
*Critique of Evidence
for Baryon Symmetry Violation*
**6 INTERACTIONS**
*Gravitational Potentials*
*Potential Form*
*Baryonic Clustering*
*Freeze-Out*
*Large-Scale Structure*
*Nucleosynthesis*
*Decoupling*
*Dicke Coincidence*
*Black Holes, White
Holes, and Other Anomolies*
*Cosmic Background Radiation*
*Local Expansion*
**7 CCM CONCERNS**
*Closure*
*Horizon*
*Symmetry*
*Smoothness*
*Homogeneity*
**8 VERIFICATION**
*Lepton Experiment*
*Baryon Experiment*
**9 DISCUSSION**
*Cosmogony and Eschatology*
**10 SUMMARY**

**CONTINUUM COSMOLOGICAL MODEL**
**Conceptual
Considerations**