Multiple Intelligences







Multiple Intelligences Resource Base Compiled by: Renata Luciani and Cindy Yeh

Drexel University - Education 324 - October 2001



An intelligence is...

The ability to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequence (or valued) in a particular cultural setting or community.

The creation of a culture product is crucial to such function as capturing and transmitting knowledge or expressing one's views or feelings.

Gardner, Frames of Mind pg. 15

Introduction to Howard Gardner

What are the Types of Multiple Intelligences?

Assessment of Multiple Intelligences

Integrating Multiple Intelligences Into the Curriculum

Introduction to Howard Gardner

Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind. New York City: Basic Books, Inc., 1983.

Gardner is founder of the multiple intelligences theory. In his book, he lays the basic theory for the multiple intelligences by giving a biological foundation and early thoughts. He lists the intelligences as being: Linguistic, Musical, Logical-Mathematical, Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, and Personal. He breaks the Personal Intelligence into Interpersonal and Intrapersonal.

President and Fellows of Harvard College. "Howard Gardner." Project Zero Principal Investigators Howard Gardner. Retrieved Oct. 2001.

This website was made by Harvard Graduate School of Education. It is brief biography of Howard Gardner's life in his own words and it includes a discussion his work and honors as a researcher in intelligence. His most recent publications include The Disciplined Mind: Beyond Facts And Standardized Tests, The K-12 Education That Every Child Deserves (Penguin Putnam, 2000) and Intelligence Reframed (Basic Books, 2000).

Koch, Christopher. "Interview: Howard Gardner." CIO Magazine. Retrieved Oct. 2001.

This website gives brief background of Howard Gardner and then interviews him. The interviewer asks many interesting questions about intelligence and how Gardner views intelligence.

Durie, Ronnie. "An Interview with Howard Gardner." Zephyr Press (Educational Publishers). Retrieved Oct. 2001.

This website also interviews Hoaward Gardner. He answers insightful questions about the eigth intelligence which is Naturalistic Intelligence and other questions about Multiple Intelligences in the classroom .

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What are the Types of Intelligences?


Ellis, Arthur K. "Teaching for Intelligence." Research on Educational Innovations. 3rd ed. New York: Eye On Education, Inc., 2001.

This chapter discusses the many theories on intelligences. The initial theory on intelligence was either an idividual is smart or dumb which qualifies under general intelligence. Other theories followed. however Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences is one of the most widely excepted.

Farris, Pamela. Language Arts: Process, Product and Assessment. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.

This book has a section that delves into multiple intelligences. It lists 9 intelligences: Linguistic, Musical, Logical-Mathematical, Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Naturalistic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal and Spiritualistic. It gives educational implications of the nine intelligences and gives different curricular formats for teaching the different types.

Yekovich, Frank. "Current Issues in Research on Intelligence." ERIC Clearing House on Assessment and Evaluation Washington D.C. ED385605 (Apr.1994). ERIC Digests. 8 October 2001.

This digest discusses several different ideas of what intelligence is, including Gardner's theory on multiple intelligences, and what our current understanding is. It also describes learning and how it affects our intelligence. Lastly, the article defines certain assessments and what forms should be used today.

Pennar, Karen. "How Many Smarts Do You Have?" Business Week. 16 September 1996: 104-106.

This article explains the background of Gardner's multiple intelligences theory. It list 8 intelligences: Verbal-Linguistic, Musical-Rhythmic, Logical-Mathematical, Visual-Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Naturalistic, Interpersonal, and Intrapersonal. It gives views of psychologists who support and whose views differ with Gardner. The article also gives examples of how Gardner's theory is being implemented into the workplace, in software, and in television.

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Assessment of Multiple Intelligences

Take Our Assessment Test of Multiple Intelligences

Wolf, Peter. "What Kind of Genius Are You?" myprimetime. Retrieved Oct. 2001.

This is an interesting website that has an interactively multiple intelligences test. You can use this if you'd like to assess yourself on the web. It include the two Personal Intelligence as well.

"Test yourself - How are you smart?" Accelerated Learning Network. Retrieved Oct. 2001.

This is yet another excellent website to assess your multiple intelligences. Much of the information we used for our assessment was derived from this website.

Brualdi, Amy. "Multiple Intelligences: Gardner's Theory". ERIC Clearing House on Assessment and Evaluation Washington D.C. ED410226. (Sept. 1996). ERIC Digests. 8 October 2001.

This digest summarizes Gardner's thoughts on multiple intelligences and the different types. It also gives more insight on integrating the multiple intelligences into the classroom and how to assess a student's intelligence by using outside sources to support Gardner's theory.

Rheault, Karen. "Using Multiple Intelligences to Enhance Learning." Karen Rheault's Multiple Intelligence Homepage. Retrieved Oct. 2001.

This is an excellent webpage which can help teachers and educator assess their classroom and teaching style to determine if they need to use mutiple intelligence teaching. Then it states the benifit and a step-by-step approach on how to implicate it once the need for it is recognized.

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Integrating Multiple Intelligences Into the Curriculum

Teaching to the Intelligences

Morris, Patrick. "Multiple Intelligences: 8 Kinds of Smart." Retrieved Oct. 2001.

This is a fun and simple format webpage that gives specific acticities that can be done to cater to the 8 types of intelligences respectively. This could be a useful tool as a educator to brainstorm ideas for the curriculum or how to teach some of the daily lessons.

Maker, C. June, Aleene Nielson, and Judith Rogers. "Giftedness, Diversity, and Problem-Solving." Teaching Exceptional Children. 27.1 (Fall 1994): 4-1.

This article merges Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory with different problem types in a matrix to identify and serve children of different abilities, cultures, interests, languages and principles. It describes ways that the children were assessed and gives case studies. It also includes a section on how to plan a curriculum using the matrix. There was also feedback from teachers who are using this process.

Gardner, Howard. "Reflections on Multiple Intelligences: Myths and Messages." Retrieved Oct. 2001.

In this article on this website Howard Gardner clarifies the misconceptions of Multiple Intelligences as well as gives tips on using it in the classroom. He also then points out the benefits of using it for education.

Gibson, Barbara, and Barbara Govendo. "Encouraging Constructive Behavior in Middle School Classrooms: a Multiple-Intelligences Approach." Intervention in School and Clinic. 35.1 (Sept. 1999): 16-21. ERIC. 4 October 2001.

Social skills are very important at the middle school level. This article focuses on the implementation of the multiple intelligences theory in the social aspect of the classroom. It gives suggestion of different ways to arrange the classroom so that it will respond to the different types. It gives examples on how to use the multiple intelligence theory to gain respect and help classes run smoothly. The article gives ways to solve problems and make transitions from class to class easier with the MI theory. It also gives good examples on how intervene when students are having a problem and how to offer support to the different types.

Fogarty, Robin. "The Intelligence Friendly Classroom: It Just Makes Sense." Phi Delta Kappan. 79.9 (May 1998): 655-7. ERIC. 8 October 2001.

This article defines what intelligence-friendly means and how that can then be used in the classroom. It gives guidelines for an intelligence-friendly classroom and samples of ways they can be used in the classroom today. The article also discusses the different theories behind intelligence, including Gardner's.

Ochanji, Moses. "Rethinking the Role of the Science Teacher." Science Teacher. 67.5 (May 2000): 24-27.

This article stresses the importance of using the multiple intelligences theory in all aspects. The theory should be applied to assessment of a student's knowledge. Standardized tests to address all students needs. Teacher should also assess the ways they teach and make sure that they are attending to all the different intelligence types.

Christison, Mary Ann, and Deborah Kennedy. "Multiple Intelligences: Theory and Practice in Adult ESL." ERIC Clearing House on Assessment and Evaluation Washington D.C. ED441350 (Dec.1994). ERIC Digests. 8 October 2001.

This article discusses the use of Gardner's theory on multiple intelligences in teaching adults who second language is English (ESL). It gives an assessment test use to identify each person's strong area. Using this theory can help ESL teachers structure their class better while embracing each person's diversity. It can also help the students perform better. The article also gives suggestions for lesson plans.

Mettetal, Gwendolyn, Cheryl Jordan, Sheryll Harper. "Attitudes Towards a Multiple Intelligence Curriculum." The Journal of Educational Research. 91.2 (Nov./Dec. 1997): 115-22. ERIC. 8 October 2001.

This article gives the background of Gardner's multiple intelligences theory. It focuses on a school that is switching over from traditional teaching methods to a curriculum based on multiple intelligences. It gives the attitudes and feelings of parents, teachers and students and also analyzes the students' standardized test scores.

Hoerr, Thomas. "Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School." Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Retrieved Oct. 2001.

This is a thorough website that is guide to integration of teaching geared toward Multiple Intelligence on broader scale than just the individual classrooms. It includes discussions with faculty, curriculum and instrauction, assessment practices, and relationships with students' parents.

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Multiple Intelligences Resource Base Compiled by: Renata Luciani and Cindy Yeh

Drexel University - Education 324