ENVR 480/885




Course Requirements

Required Readings

Weeks 2 & 3 Empirical Perspectives on Environmental Justice

Week 4 Theoretical Perspectives of Environmental Justice

Weeks 5 & 6 Historical Development of Environmental Justice Movements

Week 7 Environmental Justice and the Law

Week 8 International Environmental Justice Concerns

Week 9 Course Wrap Up and Student Presentations

Environmental Justice Resources

Environmental Justice Bibliographies

Environmental Justice Groups 

Hagerty Library Electronic Reserve Readings


Dr. Brulle

Web Page Links

Home Page





Other Items



ENVR 480/865

WINTER 2001 Monday 5:30-8:20 P.M.


Dr. Robert J. Brulle

Nesbitt Building, Room 503

Office Hours: Monday 3:00 - 5:00 P.M. or by appointment

Telephone: Office: (215) 895-2294

Email: brullerj@drexel.edu



This seminar course provides an introduction to the concept of Environmental Justice. The course begins with an overview of the theoretical approach and empirical literature on this concept. The course then focuses on the historical development of social movements based on this concept. It concludes with an examination of the legal structure used to enforce environmental justice, methods to determine incidents of environmental injustice, and the international component of environmental justice concerns.


Course Requirements:

This course has two course requirements as follows:

1. Class Participation: The key to success for this course is active participation by all involved. What is sought is to develop a cooperative atmosphere of mutual learning. The class should be seen as the cumulative development of a group conversation. Active and meaningful participation in the class discussions is thus required. We want to be able to use the time together as a group to share and critique ideas. Accordingly, the students should use the time between classes to read and become conversant with the material. A key part in learning new ideas is through their use. Each student will prepare a short written summary of the assigned readings prior to class. Each summary will consist of a brief description of ideas presented, and what the particular reading adds to the overall conversation in the course. Students will be randomly chosen to present their summary at each class session. Participation in class will constitute 40% of the course grade.


2. Course Paper: This course requires the preparation and presentation of a research paper. The paper will count for 60% of the course grade. This paper will focus on an environmental movement issue of interest to the student. A 250 word description of the topic of the paper, and applicable references, is due at the beginning of class in the 4th week of class. The final paper will be approximately 15-20 pages in length. The research paper is due in the final class session.


Required Texts and Readings

This course has four required texts as listed below. In addition, the reserve readings are available on line at the Hagerty Library Electronic Reserve Readings

Hofrichter, Richard (ed.) 2000. Reclaiming the Environmental Debate: The Politics of Health in a Toxic Culture. Cambridge MA: MIT Press

Bryant, Bunyan (ed.) 1995. Environmental Justice: Issues, Policies, and Solutions. Island Press: Washington DC

National Research Council 1999. Toward Environmental Justice: Research, Education, and Health Policy Needs. National Academy Press: Washington DC

Bullard, Robert D., Johnson, Glenn S., and Torres, Angel O. (ed.) 2000. Sprawl City: Race, Politics and Planning in Atlanta. Island Press: Washington DC





Week One January 8, 2001 - Introduction and Course Overview


Landview III  

Landview Training Program

Landview Resources

Landview Guided Tour

The Right-To-Know Network

The Right-to-Know Network provides free access to numerous databases, text files, and conferences on the environment, housing, and sustainable development. With the information available on RTK.NET, you can identify specific factories and their environmental effects; analyze reinvestment by banks in their communities; and assess people and communities affected.

U.S. EPA Envirofacts Query Form

U.S. EPA Health Environmental Health Data

The United States Environmental Protection Agency Health Data website lists the Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the United States: (1950-94) Cancer death rates, including 40 different cancer types can be viewed spatially across the United States. The data set contains cancer rates for white males and females and black males and females. The data can be viewed either by state, county or state economic area. Statistical significance can also be determined based on the cancer rate for the specific area identified and the United States. This website proves as a useful tool in the environmental justice movement, such that it can show spatial trends of increased cancer rates for whites versus blacks by state economic areas.

U.S. EPA Envirofacts Homepage


University of Michigan Environmental Data Center

This website gives a definition of environmental justice and lists the tools needed to examine an area for environmental injustice. There are links to find data such as census data, pollution data, and health data. There are also links to find maps and current lobbying efforts against environmental justice.




Weeks Two and Three, January 22 and 29, 2001

Empirical Perspectives on Environmental Justice

Bryant -- Introduction and Chapters 1, 3, 7, 10

Hofrichter, Richard (ed.) 1993. Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice -- Chapters 2 and 15

National Research Council. 1999. Toward Environmental Justice, pages 1-43, and 61-68

Bullard et. al. pages 21-160

Mohai, Paul, and Bryant, Bunyan. 1992. Environmental Racism: Reviewing the Evidence. pp. 163-176 in Bryant, Bunyan, and Mohai, Paul (ed.) 1992. Race and the Incidence of Environmental Hazards: A Time for Discourse. Westview



Week Four, February 5, 2001

Theoretical Perspectives of Environmental Justice

Freudenberg, Nicholas, 1984. NOT in our Backyards: Community Action for Health and the Environment. New York: Monthly Review Press, pp. 15-47

Beck, Ulrich, 1992 "From Industrial to Risk Society" Theory Culture and Society Vol. 9, 97-123

Gelboter, Michel, 1992., Toward a Model of Environmental Discrimination, pp. 64-81 in Bryant, Bunyan, and Mohai, Paul (ed.) 1992. Race and the Incidence of Environmental Hazards: A Time for Discourse. Westview

Hofrichter 2000 Chapters 7, 12 & 13



Weeks Five and Six, February 12 and 19, 2001

Historical Development of Environmental Justice Movements

Brulle, Robert. 2000 "Agency, Democracy, and the Environment, pp. 207-221

Citizen - Worker Movement

Colten, Craig E., and Skinner, Peter N. 1996. The Road to Love Canal: Managing Industrial Waste before EPA. Austin: University of Texas Press, Chapters 4 and 7

Hofrichter, Richard (ed.) 1993. Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice. - Chapter 10

Gibbs, Lois, 1982. Love Canal: My Story Albany, SUNY Press, Chapters 1 and 5

The People of Color Environmental Movement

Hare, Nathan, 1970 Black Ecology The Black Scholar Vol 1, No 6, April 1970, 2-8

Smith, James Noel, 1972, Environmental Quality and Social Justice in Urban America, Washington DC: Conservation Foundation

Burch, William R Jr. 1971. The Peregrine Falcon and the Urban Poor: Some Sociological Interrelations. Pp. 308-316 in Culture and Society in an Environmental Context

Hofrichter, Richard (ed.) 1993. Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice - Chapters 11, 12, and Appendix

Bryant chapter 5

Southwest Organizing Project Letter of March 16, 1990

Native Americans and the Environment

Hofrichter, Richard (ed.) 1993. Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice - Chapter 9

Bryant Chapter 11

Hofrichter 2000, Chapter 6


Week Seven, February 26, 2001 - Environmental Justice and the Law

Executive Order 12898

Civil Rights Act 42 U.S.C.

Code of Federal Regulations, Part 7

Title VI Administrative Guidelines, Pages 1-12, 15, 27-28, 48-56

U.S. EPA National Environmental Justice Guidance Document, Chapters 1-3

Hofrichter, Richard (ed.) 1993. Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice - Chapter 13

Government Environmental Justice Links

U.S. EPA - Environmental Justice Program

U.S. EPA - Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance

U.S. EPA - Office of Environmental Justice


Week Eight, March 5, 2001 International Environmental Justice Concerns

Hofrichter, Richard (ed.) 1993. Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice - Chapter 21

Bryant Chapter 14

Hofrichter 2000 - Chapter Ten


Week Nine, March 12, 2001 - Course Wrap Up And Presentation Of Student Papers



Environmental Justice Resources

Environmental Justice Information Page

Environmental Justice Web Links - University of Michigan

Environmental Research Foundation

IGC's Environmental Justice Network

NJDEP Site Remediation Program - Superfund


Toxic Maps


Bibliographies on Environmental Justice

Fighting Racism: A Selected Annotated Bibloography

Environmental Inequality Bibliography

Environmental Justice Data Base


Environmental Justice Groups

Action for Community and Ecology in the Rainforests of Central America (ACERCA)

Asian Pacific Environmental Network (APEN)

Communities for a Better Environment (CBE)

Center for Health and Environmental Justice

Chester PA Toxic Facilities

Chester Residents Concerned for Quality Living

Community Coalition for Environmental Justice

EarthRights International

Environmental Inequality

Environmental Justice Groups and Events

Environmental Justice: Native Americans and the Environment Links

Harlem Environmental Access Project

Indigenous Environmental Network

National Hispanic Environmental Council

National Religious Partnership for the Environment

National Tribal Environmental Council

Native American Fish and Wildlife Society

Native Americans and the Environment: United States

South Central Oklahoma Environmental Justice Resource Center

SouthWest Organizing Project (SWOP)

United Church of Christ

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Date Last Modified: 8/28/00