METHODS - ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATION DATA SET

 

The construction of the environmental organization data base consisted of four distinct steps.  First, ten series of directories, eighty nine print directories, and forty seven web directories containing  environmental and conservation organizations with national or regional coverage from 1899-2003 were gathered (if print) and examined to gather names and specific data elements for each organization over this time period.  This file was then cleaned of non-environmental organizations. This resulted in an organizational file listing national environmental organizations from 1899-2003.  The third task was to develop a data file of the characteristics of the environmental organizations in the file.  To accomplish this task, additional materials were gathered on each organization, either by writing the organization, examining the organization’s web site, or collecting historical written material on the organization.  Using these materials, the fourth step involved coding the  organizational characteristics.  This created an environmental organizational file with detailed coding information on each organization’s characteristics.

 

A.  Compilation Of Organizational Listings

 

The following items were examined to compile a organizational data base of environmental organizations from 1899-2003.

 

1.  Key word search, Encyclopedia of Associations:  Organizations listed based on search of on-line

     version – “Associations Unlimited”, using the subject headings listed in Table I for national or

     international organizations in the United States.

 

2.  International, National, and Regional U.S. organizations listed in online version of Conservation

     Directory

 

3.  List from Jenkins 1995 Sample

 

4.  List from Baumgartner 1990 Sample

 

5.  List from Brulle 1995 Sample

 

6.  Review of all organizations over $25,000 annual income in IRS Master File based on a selection of

     appropriate IRS Codes, or NTEE Codes listed in Tables II and III.

 

7.  Review of the following print directories:

 

SERIES

                1.             Acid rain resources directory. Acid Rain Foundation. 1982-1988

            2.         Bulletin Of The Associated Mountaineering Clubs Of North America 1916-1927

            3.         Conservation Directory and predecessors 1900-2003

            4.         Conservation Yearbook  1952-1954

                5.             Directory of National Environmental Organizations 1984 - 1992

            6.         Directory of National Organizations Concerned with Land Pollution Control 1970-1974

            7.         Encyclopedia of Associations 1956-2003

            8.         Forestry Almanac 1929-1949

                9.             People of Color Environmental Directory (series)

                10.          World Directory of Environmental Organizations 1973 - 1996

 

ONE TIME DIRECTORIES

            1.         A coastal directory for marine nature conservation: Marine Conservation Society, - 1988

            2.         A directory : youth conservation programs:  Youth Policy Institute, - 1979

            3.         A directory of environmental organizations in the U.S., - 1973

            4.         A Directory of National Women’s Groups, - 1992

            5.         A Golden guide to environmental organizations, - 1972

            6.         A survey of environmental science organizations in the USA, - 1970

            7.         America’s Trails:  A Directory of Organizations and Managing Agencies American Hiking Society - 1995

            8.         Bioregional Directory, Plant Drum Foundation - 1987

            9.         Bird conservation directory 2001

            10.        Buzzworm Environmental Journal Directory of Environmental Organizations 1990

            11.        Carroll’s environmental directory, - 1995

            12.        Conservation and renewable energy resource directory, - 1980?

            13.        Consumer energy atlas, - 1980

            14.        Directory – Group Research Inc. , - 1962

            15.        Directory of American Agricultural Organizations - 1920

            16.        Directory of conservation tillage clubs & associations: Conservation Tillage Information Center, 1985

            17.        Directory of environmental and conservation organizations in the Metro D.C. area  - 1989

            18.        Directory of Environmental Information Sources, - 1972

            19.        Directory of Environmental Resources & Activities in the N.A. Religious Community - 1992

            20.        Directory of Intentional Communities, 1992 & 1994

            21.        Directory of nature centers and related environmental education facilities - 1979

            22.        Directory of official housing improvement and neighborhood conservation agencies, - 1955

            23.        Directory of resources in neighborhood conservation - 1980

            24.        Directory Of Walking, Camping And Nature Clubs Of America 1939

            25.        Directory of women in international natural resources, - 1983

            26.        Directory to Environmental Groups, - 1992

            27.        Directory: Ready reference on groups attempting to influence governmental and economic affairs - 1962

            28.        Earth Tool Kit, - 1970

            29.        Ecotactics –The Sierra Club Handbook for Environmental Activists, - 1970

            30.        Eenvironmental guidebook: Environmental Frontlines, - 2002

            31.        Energy activists directory : who's who in energy conservation, conversion, and alternatives  - 1975

            32.        Environment U.S.A.; a guide to agencies, people, and resources., - 1974

            33.        Environmental Address Book , - 1991

            34.        Environmental Directory , - 1990

            35.        Environmental Hazards - Air Pollution, - 1989

            36.        Environmental Hazards - Marine Pollution, - 1993

            37.        Environmental Hazards - Radioactive Materials and Waste, - 1990

            38.        Environmental Hazards - Toxic Waste and Hazardous Material, - 1991

            39.        Environmental information sources handbook, - 1974

            40.        Environmental Profiles, - 1993

            41.        Environmental resource handbook., - 2002

            42.        EPA Information Resources Directory, - 1989

            43.        Federal environmental monitoring directory, - 1973

            44.        Gale Environmental Almanac, - 1993

            45.        Global oceans directory :a compendium of organizations dedicated to marine conservation: EPA  - 1992

            46.        GreenWorld's directory  - 1994

            47.        Guide to Ecology Information and Organizations, - 1976

            48.        Guide to private citizen action environmental groups, - 1973

            49.        Guide to Public Affairs Organizations - 1946

            50.        Guide to the American Left: Laird Wilcox Editorial Research Service, - 1993

            51.        International Health Organizations and Movements 1918-1939    1995

            52.        Inventory of environmental improvement programs  Keep America Beautiful, Inc.  - 1974

            53.        Liaison conservation directory for endangered and threatened species - 1983, -

            54.        Macrocosm USA  - 1992

            55.        Mining conservation directory 1998 :the hardrock mining activist's sourcebook Mineral Policy Center - 1998

            56.        National directory of conservation land trusts   Land Trust Exchange - 1989

            57.        National Directory of Farmland Protection Organizations, - 1983

            58.        National directory of local and regional land conservation organizations Land Trust Exchange, 1985

            59.        National Directory of Safe Energy Organizations, - 1994

            60.        National Health Agencies - 1945

            61.        Naturalists Guide To The Americas - 1926

            62.        Nature Directory: A guide to Environmental Organization, - 1991

            63.        New Age Journal – Annual Environmental Directory – 1990

            64.        North American conservation tillage clubs and associations - 1991

            65.        Officials and Organizations concerned with the conservation of natural resources - 1945

            66.        Plant conservation directory, Center for Plant Conservation, Missouri Botanical Garden, 1995

            67.        Regional conservation directory: Rocky Mountain Center on Environment - 1972

            68.        Renewable energy resources :a directory of conservation & renewable energy organizations & pubs - 1981

            69.        River conservation directory. U.S. Dept. of the Interior - 1990

            70.        Sate and regional conservation councils, - 1969

            71.        Solar directory, Environmental Action of Colorado, 1975

            72.        Sportsman's Directory - 1891

            73.        State and regional conservation councils - 1969

            74.        Stevens environmental sourcebook:: Stevens Pub. Corp., - 1995

            75.        The Environmentalists, - 1993

            76.        This land is your land:  a guide to North America’s Endangered Ecosystems, - 1983

            77.        Turning things around: a women’s occupational and environmental health resource guide, - 1990

            78.        U.S. Citizens in World Affairs: A Directory of non-governmental organizations:, - 1953

            79.        U.S. directory of environmental sources, - 1981

            80.        U.S. Energy and Environmental Interest Groups: Greenwood Press, - 1990

            81.        Water conservation directory - 1991

            82.        Who is Who at the Earth Summit - 1992 Rio De Janeiro

            83.        Who is Who in Service to the Earth, - 1993

            84.        Who’s Who in Ozone, - 1994

            85.        Who's who in energy and conservation:  New York State Alliance to Save Energy, - 1977

            86.        Women’s Council on Energy and the Environment – Membership Directory, - 1994

            87.        World Environmental Report, - 1994

            88.        Yearbook Of The Department Of Agriculture - 1899 

            89.        Your Resource Guide to Environmental Organizations , - 1991

           

10.  Books/Publications

            a.  NASH - WILDERNESS AND THE AMERICAN MIND

            b.  SUTTER - DRIVEN WILD

            c.  Report Of The President's Committee On Wild-Life Restoration US. Dept Of Agriculture 1934

 

11.  Proceedings

            a.  Proceedings Of The National Conference On Outdoor Education 1963

            b.  Proceedings Of The National Conference On Outdoor Recreation 1924

            c.  Proceedings Of The National Conference On Outdoor Recreation 1926

            d.  Proceedings Of The North American Wildlife Conference - 1936

            e.  Proceedings of the Forest Conservation Conference - 1937

            f.   Proceedings of the First National Conservation Congress - 1909

            g.  Proceedings of the National Park Conference, September 11 & 12, 1911

 

12.  List of Organizations on Executive Committee of Environmental Justice Summit II

 

13.  Environmental Organizations registered with the United Nations

 

14.  Web listings as follows:

            1.         Acton Institute for the Study of Religion & liberty -http://www.acton.org/ppolicy/environment/theology/orgs.html

            2.         Alliance for the Wild Rockies Member Groups - http://www.wildrockiesalliance.org

            3.         Amazing Environmental Organization WebDirectory http://www.webdirectory.com

            4.         American Rivers Listing http://www.amrivers.org/index.php

            5.         Basel Action Network - http://www.ban.org

            6.         Bird Conservation Directory - http://www.abcbirds.org/directory/directory.htm

            7.         Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise - Undue Influence Book Data -   http://www.undueinfluence.com/

            8.         Children's Environmental Health Network - http://www.cehn.org

            9.         Citizens for Responsible Wildlife Management - http://www.responsiblewildlifemanagement.org

            10.        Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies - http://www.ceres.org

            11.        Conservation Groups http://www.americanlands.org/forestweb/groups.htm

            12.        Dictator Watch list of environmental groups - http://www.dictatorywatch.org

            13.        Directory of Intentional Communities - http://iclist.ic.org/iclist/index.php?page=list&sort=alpha&display_all=true

            14.        DMOZ Open Directory project - Env Justice  ttp://dmoz.org/Society/Issues/Environment/Environmental_Justice/

            15.        Dogwood Alliance Member Groups www.dogwoodalliance.org

            16.        Earthday Network http://www.earthday.net/g&e/searchNetwork.asp

            17.        Ecoportal http://www.eco-portal.com/

            18.        EF! Journal - http://www.earthfirstjournal.org/efj/

            19.        Envirolink - The Online Environmental Community - http://www.envirolink.org

            20.        Environmental Health Professional Online - http://www.niehs.hih.gov

            21.        Environmental Justice and Health Union - http://www.ejhu.org

            22.        Evangelical Environmental Network - http://www.creationcare.org/partners.php

            23.        Freedom Activist Network Index - http://www.freeact.net

            24.        Great Lakes Directory  http://www.greatlakesdirectory.org/

            25.        Green Tithe - http://www.GreenTithe.com

            26.        GreenTreks Network http://www.greentreks.org/education/links.asp

            27.        Harvard University Forum on Religion & Ecology - http://environment.harvard.edu/religion/religion

            28.        Health Care Without Harm - http://www.noharm.org

            29.        Heartwood - http://www.heartwood.org

            30.        MacroNet - http://www.macronet.org/htsearch.html

            31.        Minority Environmental Leadership Development Institute - www.umich.edu/`meldi

            32.        Moving Ideas - http://www.movingideas.org

            33.        National Trappers Links - http://www.nationaltrappers.com/Funlinks.html#Organizations

            34.        North American Association for Environmental Education - http://www.eelink.net

            35.        North American Coalition For Christianity And Ecology  -  http://www.nacce.org/links.html

            36.        One Northwest Environmental Information Center - http://www.onenw.org

            37.        Partnership for Children's Health and the Environment - http://www.partnersforchildren.org

            38.        Rachel’s Hazardous Waste Newsletter Directory - www.rachel.org/orglist

            39.        Rails to Trails Clearinghouse - http://www.trailsandgreenways.org/connections/links/default.asp

            40.        Religion and Environment Orgs http://www.icci.co.il/linkpageecologyreligion.html

            41.        Religious Witness for the Earth http://www.religiouswitness.org/links.html

            42.        River Network Organization - http://rivernetwork.org

            43.        Sprawl Watch Clearinghouse - http://sprawlwatch.org

            44.        Toxic Links Coalition Web Site - http://www.toxiclinks.net

            45.        U.S. Climate Action Network  http://www.climatenetwork.org/uscanweb/uscan-contacts.htm

            46.        World Directory of Environmental Directories Online - http://www.interenvironment.org

            47.        Yahoo Envr Web Dir -http://dir.yahoo.com/Society_and_Culture/Environment_and_Nature/Organizations/

 

B.  Selection of National Environmental Organizations/Cleaning File

 

National Environmental Organizations are defined for this data collection effort as any national or regional nonprofit organization that seeks to bring about improvement in the natural environment.  This role can be fulfilled for a number of reasons:

 

1.  Size - either in budget, membership, or staff resources,

 

2.  Perceived political influence - highly influential in establishing environmental agenda, either through lobbying, publication of widely read material, etc.

 

3.  Uses a unique set of activities or tactics - the organization initiates actions that represent a unique position within the environmental movement i.e., it does different things.

 

4.  Issue focus - the types of 'problems' and 'solutions' developed by the organization form a distinct position within the overall environmental movement, i.e., it looks at things differently.

In compiling our inventory, we excluded the following types of organizations from the file:

 

1.  Organizations with a local or foreign  focus – Local is defined as an organization with activity in only one state or community (two states or more will be coded as regional orgs).  If, however, a local organization has some national activity (either currently or historically) it will be included in the file.  International environmental organizations without a U.S. chapter are not included in the file.

 

2.  Government organizations – Government organizations are those whose participants are exclusively government officials or government organizations.  This includes interstate commissions, government advisory boards, or elements of any government agency.  If an organization includes government organizations as well as individuals or organizations from the private sector (eg. an umbrella org. or joint govt/non-profit org membership), then the organization will be included.

 

3.  Industry trade associations – Organizations that are confederations of industrial or trade associations that take collective action to forward their joint economic interests were excluded.  Joint industry, public, and government organizations that seek to influence industrial practices are included in the file.

 

4.  Foundations without an operational function – Foundations (or grant-givers) that are solely involved in issuing grants to environmental organizations will not be included unless they have some type of operational function aimed at environmental improvement. 

 

5.  Anti-environmental advocacy organizations – Advocacy groups whose sole purpose is to counter the goals of pro-environmental organizations will not be included.  Those organizations that are pro-environment on some issues and anti-environmental on others will be included.  The list of organizations was checked against several directories of anti-environmental organizations.

 

6.  Strictly Humane Society/Animal Rights Organization  (no secondary environmental concerns) – Those organizations that are strictly humane societies (concerned with protecting the interests of household pets), will not be selected.  In addition, organizations specifically focusing on animal rights, without any  connection to environmental issues, will also be excluded.  If either of these types of organizations have a secondary environmental concern they will be included.

 

7.  Strictly Outdoor Recreation  (no secondary environmental improvement concern) – Those organizations that are strictly recreational in focus (hiking, fishing, or hunting clubs etc.) will not be coded unless they have some evidence of environmental concern. 

 

8.  For profit organizations – If an organization provides products or services for profit they will not be included.

 

9.  No  environmental improvement goals – An organization will not be coded unless it has some goals or activities aimed at  environmental improvement. 

 

C.  Data Gathering on Organizational Characteristics

 

Utilizing the list of organizations developed by the above process, additional material was sought by letter to each listed current environmental organization.  Key items requested included the organization’s bylaws, current and past IRS 990s, and current annual report. In addition, the online and print versions of the directories were consulted to obtain historical information on each organization.

 

C-1.  Founding and Defunct Date Determination

 

To determine dates of organizational founding and death dates where it was not listed in one of the consulted directories, the following procedures were used in priority order:

 

1.  Web search for articles or other information regarding defunct organization

 

2.  Search of Worldcat Data Base - for dates of publications by organization.  The starting date and ending date of a periodical publication were assumed to be the birth and death dates of an organization.

 

3.  Search of the data base - Historic NY Times, Washington Post, and Christian Science Monitor for mention of the organization’s name in any story.  Birth date was based on the year of first mention of the organization, and death date was assumed to be the year after the last mention of the organization in any of these papers.

 

4.  Failure to appear in the directory  - the year of the birth and death for the organization were based on the initial year and last year an organization appeared in a directory series (Conservation Directory or Encyclopedia of Associations).

 

C-2  Environmental Organization Characteristics File

 

This data collection yielded a data set of national environmental organizations with the following fields:

1.    NAME

2.    ADDRESS

3.    CITY/STATE/ZIP

4.    YR FOUNDED

5.    YR DIED

6.    DEATH TYPE

            1 Organization defunct

            2 Address unknown (listed in Directory)

            3 Presently inactive

            4 No longer listed in Directory

            5 Merged/absorbed (name in “Absorbed By” or “Merged to Form”)

7 .   OTHER NAMES OF ORGANIZATION INCLUDING:

            Former Names

            Merged To Form Names

            Absorbed Names

            Otherwise Known As Names

8.    ENCYASSOC SIC CODES

9.    ENCYASSOC SUBJECT DESCRIPTORS

10.  ENCYASSOC SUBJECT CATEGORY

11.  SOURCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL IDENTIFICATION

12.  SOURCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL DATA

13,  MEMBERS 2003

14.  STAFF 2003

15.  BUDGET 2003

16. MEMBERS 2000

17. STAFF 2000

18. BUDGET 2000

19. MEMBERS 1995

20. STAFF 1995

21. BUDGET 1995

22. MEMBERS 1990

23. STAFF 1990

24. BUDGET 1990

25. MEMBERS 1985

26. STAFF 1985

27. BUDGET 1985

28. MEMBERS 1980

29. STAFF 1980

30. BUDGET 1980

31. MEMBERS 1975

32. STAFF 1975

33. BUDGET 1975

34. MEMBERS 1970

35. STAFF 1970

36. BUDGET 1970

37. MEMBERS 1965

38. STAFF 1965

39. BUDGET 1965

40. MEMBERS 1960

41. STAFF 1960

42. BUDGET 1960

 

D.  Environmental Organization Coded Characteristics File

 

The material gathered for each organization, including the textual materials provided by the organization was then coded in accordance with the coding instructions shown in the attached file.  This resulted in a coded characteristics file for each environmental organization in the following dimensions:

 

1 & 2. NATURE OF SMO  Primary & secondary nature of organization, based on the following definitions:

1          Advocacy Org:  attempts to change institutional practices or decision making, or disseminates

            material to impact public opinion on the environment.

2.         Think Tank/Research Institute:  Conducts research and disseminates results

3.         University Affiliated Research Institute:  Conducts research and disseminates results

4.         Government Affiliated Association:  Created by government action or affiliated with government

            agency

5.         Scientific Association: Association of scientists or researchers

6.         Professional Association  Association of professionals in a given field

7.         Zoo/aquarium/museum/botanical garden:  Collecting/exhibiting animals, plants, etc.

8.         Land Trust:  Purchases or trades land to ensure its preservation

9.         Environmental Education Organization:  Develops/facilitates/conducts structured environmental

            education programs

10.        Recreation:  Facilitates outdoor recreational activities

11.        Foundation:  Provides funds to environmental organizations

12.        Plant/Animal/Ecosystem Propagation or Rehabilitation:  Aids in the restoration, development,

            preservation, or growth of natural world through physical activities, such as

            rehabilitation or release of injured wild animals, breeding wild animals to restore

            endangered species, tree planting, stream restoration, community/beach cleanup, etc.

13.        Humane Society:  Cares for abandoned/orphaned/injured pets or wild animals.

14.        Other:  Other activities

 

3.  GROUP SCOPE

0.         Unknown

1.         International

2.         National (code if no information and appears to have national focus)

3.         Regional

 

4.  MEMBERSHIP: Typically indicated by significant membership plus presence of chapters

0.         Unknown/Not Indicated

1.         Non-membership

2.         Membership Org

 

5.  MEMBERSHIP BASE

0.         Unknown/None

1.         Individuals

2.         Organizations only

3.         Mixed: individuals & orgs

4.         Umbrella/Network/Coalition

5.         Other/unspecified

 

6.  ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

0.         Unknown

1.         Independent Organization

2.         Federation – organization with multiple chapters at state, local, or regional levels

 

7.  ANNUAL CONVENTION OR MEETING

0          Unknown/Not indicated

1.         None

2.         Annual

3.         More than one time/year

 

8-23  TACTICS OF ORGANIZATION – Activities engaged in by the organization to realize its goal based on the following descriptions.  Coded   0 – Not present,   1 - Present

 

8          Political Advocacy/Lobbying:  Lobbying, and petition campaigns, electoral politics

9.         Litigation/Legal Advocacy:  Engage in civil/criminal suits or other legal activities

10         Economic Boycott:  Advocate product purchasing boycott to change behavior of corporation

11.        Scientific Advocacy:  Development and dissemination of scientific information to influence

            treatment of the natural environment

12.        Public Opinion/Information Advocacy:  Provide materials/publications to influence public opinion

13.        Educational Advocacy:  Foster development/conduct formal environmental educational activities

14.        Moral/Spiritual Advocacy:  Develop and make moral pronouncements to promote changes in the

            treatment of the natural environment

15.        Aesthetic Advocacy:  Develop/distribute aesthetic materials (pictures, music, etc.) to change

            treatment of the natural environment

16.        Community Organizing:  Provide staff and technical assistance to organize local community

            organizations

17.        Protest Activities/Demonstrations: Use of public marches, rallies, nonviolent protest, civil

            disobedience or other forms of extra-institutional collective action

18.        Direct Action:  Confrontational activities, such as Tree Sitting, Road Blocking, Monkey wrenching

19.        Offer Grants/Funds:  offer funding or other material resources to support change activities

20.        Support Services: Provide support activities on behalf of social movement groups,

            such as publicity, research, GIS services, information clearinghouse, library

21         Produce/Develop/Sell Products:  Develop, market, or promote new technologies/products

22.        Physical Activities/Buy Land:  Physical Activities to Conserve/Preserve/Restore – buy land for

            preservation, plant trees, physically clean up areas, plant/animal Reproduction or rehabilitation

23.        Mass Communications/Media Techniques:  Develop/promote use of mass media to

            promote environmental improvement

 

DISCURSIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS - ITEMS 24-41

(See attached coding instructions for these items)

 

24-34  DISCURSIVE FRAME OF ORGANIZATION – Discourses used by organization based on the following definitions.  Coded   0 - Not Present,   1 - Present   2 - Strongly Present

24.        Wildlife Management 

25.        Conservation

26.        Preservation

27.        Reform Environmentalism

28.        Environmental Justice

29.        Environmental Health

30.        Deep Ecology

31.        Ecofeminism

32.        Ecospiritualism

33.        Animal Rights

34.        Other Discourse

 

35.  PRIMARY DISCURSIVE FRAME OF ORGANIZATION  Forced choice of one primary discursive frame of organization (See attached coding instructions)

1. Wildlife Management                          5. Environmental Justice 9.   Ecospiritualism

2. Conservation                                      6. Environmental Health              10. Animal Rights

3. Preservation                                       7. Deep Ecology                        11. Other Discourse

4. Reform Environmentalism                    8. Ecofeminism

 

36.  GENERALIST/FRAME SPANNER  Does the organization contains multiple discursive frames? (See attached coding instructions)

0.         No

1.         Yes

 

37.  ISSUE FOCUS  Institutional focus, based on the following definitions: (See attached coding instructions)

1.         Narrow focus

2.         Broad, multi-issue focus

3.         Multi-movement focus

 

38.  GOAL DEFINITION  Extent of clarity of institution’s goals or objectives (See attached coding instructions)

1.         Vague

2.         Implicit in Text

3.         Well Defined

 

39.  FORM OF DISCOURSE  Rhetorical form of the discourse used by organization based on the following definitions: (See attached coding instructions)

1.         Conservative

2.         Managerial

3.         Confrontational

 

40 & 41  STRATEGY FOR SOCIAL CHANGE  Identification of the implicit theories of how to bring about social change underlying social movement activities based on the following definitions.  Coded by Primary and Secondary Strategy (See attached coding instructions)

1.         Transcendence

2.         Education

3.         Intellectual

4.         Parliamentarian

5.         Protest

6.         Prophecy

7.         Sabotage/Terrorism

 

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND GOVERNANCE - ITEMS 42-62

(See attached coding instructions for these items)

 

42.  AMOUNT OF BUREAUCRACY  Does the organization have a professional staff?

0.         No

1.         Yes

 

43,  STRUCTURE OF ORGANIZATION  Does the organization have chapters or subgroups?

0.         No

1.         Yes

 

44-49  STATUS OF LEADERS AND MEMBERS

            44.  Are there limits to the number of terms that can be served by members of the Board of

            Directors of the organization?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

            45.  Are there limits to the number of terms that can be served by the Executive Officers

            (President, Vice President, etc.) of the organization?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

            46.  Are there limits to the number of years that can be served by the Executive Director of the

             organization?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

            47.  Are the members of the Board of Directors elected?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes, by current board of  directors

            2.         Yes, by representatives of members

            3.         Yes, directly by members

            48.  Are the Executive Officers of the organization elected?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes, by current board of  directors

            2.         Yes, by representatives of members

            3.         Yes, directly by members

            49.  Is the Executive Director elected?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes, by current board of  directors

            2.         Yes, by representatives of members

            3.         Yes, directly by members

 

50-52.  DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS

            50.  Is there a provision for a referendum to be held in the bylaws?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

            51.  Are there provisions for members to communicate with the Board of Directors or officers of        the organization?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

            52.  Does the organization's literature contain information on the income and expenses of the          organization?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

 

53.  INTERNAL CONFLICT/ CIRCULATION OF DISSENTING OPINIONS   Does the organization's literature contain dissenting opinions regarding organizational matters of policy/program initiatives?

0.         No

1.         Yes

 

54-56  CHARACTERISTICS OF MEMBERS LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF ORGANIZATION

            54.   Are board meetings required to be public?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

            55.  Does the organization's literature contain the results of a Board of Director's meeting?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

            56.  Does the organization's literature contain results of an election?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

 

57-58  POWER DISTRIBUTION-

            57.  Are there requirements for some form of proportional representation on the Board of

            Directors?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

            58.  Can members nominate individuals to run for election to the Board of Directors or as officers

            of the organization?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

 

59-61  PARTICIPATION SKILLS

            59.  Are the rules for elections specified in the bylaws?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

            60.  Does the organization's literature contain notice of a meeting of the Board of Directors?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

            61.  Does the organization's literature contain notice of an election?

            0.         No

            1.         Yes

 

62.  ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE: 

            1.         Oligarchy

            2.         Representative

            3.         Limited Democracy

            4.         Democracy


CODING INSTRUCTIONS

 

DISCURSIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

 

The task of coding the discourse of environmental organizations involves characterizing their discourse in seven areas. These areas are:

            1.  Discursive Frame of Organization

            2.  Primary Discursive Frame of Organization

            3.  Generalist/Frame Spanner

            4.  Nature of Issue Focus

            5.  Clarity of Goal Definition

            6.  Rhetorical Style of Discourse

            7.  Strategy For Bringing About Social Change

 

The material on which to base your coding is contained in the enclosed organization files.  Each of the files contain material on a particular environmental organization.  Included in each file are descriptions of the organization from several environmental directories, and copies of the organization’s founding statement, bylaws, annual income tax return, and publication.  A separate coding sheet is enclosed for each organization.  Based on the following descriptions of each area, please complete a form for each organization.

 

1.  DISCURSIVE FRAME OF ORGANIZATION:  The first task is to code which environmental discourse forms the viewpoint of the organization.  The discourse on which an environmental organization is based can be identified by reviewing the documents produced by the organization.  Every organization produces a vast number of texts, including position papers, fund raising letters, news releases, etc.  Among these documents, there are key documents that provide insights into the discourses on which an environmental organization is based. One set of key documents are the bylaws, annual reports, or self descriptions of the organization.  Here the purpose of the organization is stated in short, clear terms.  This statement of purpose is generally the clearest expression of the organization’s world view.  Another key area to examine is the magazine produced by each organization.  The literature of environmental organizations can be seen as an effort in mobilizing the members of the organization.  This creates a distinct genre of magazine.  This genre has two general themes.  First, the value of the organization is demonstrated by success stories.  Secondly, the members are mobilized for further efforts by discussions of threats to the desired state of affairs in the world, and the need for action.  An examination of the successes and threats described in the magazine can provide valuable insights into the type of discourse that forms the basis of the organization.  There are ten environmental discourses that can be selected.

 

A.  Wildlife Management:  This discursive frame defines an orientation toward the recreational use of  a  given wildlife resource - be it fish species, types of birds, or different animals.  Key components of this discourse are as follows:

n         The scientific management of ecosystems can ensure stable populations of wildlife.

n         This wildlife population can be seen as a crop from which excess populations can be

            sustainable harvested in accordance with the ecological limitations of a given area.

n         This excess wildlife population thus can be utilized for human recreation in sport hunting.

Organizations with this discursive frame focus on ensuring that there are plenty of the desired species available for hunting or fishing.  They also define what constitutes correct “sporting behavior.”  Organizations based on this discourse define their objective as conserving or rationally developing our wildlife resources to provide for human recreation needs.  They use words such as "maximizing the supply of game", or "conserve our wildlife resources.”  Their magazines are usually highly polished and illustrated with the game species that the organization seeks to conserve.  Organizations with this discursive frame are generally hunting or fishing organizations.

 

B. Conservation  In this discourse, nature is a resource to be used by human society to meet human needs.  This forms the basis for collective action to ensure that natural resources are used by applying the criteria of rationality and efficiency to achieve the maximum utility to society.  Key components of this perspective are:

n         Physical and biological nature is nothing more than a collection of parts that function like a machine.

n         Humans need to use the natural resources provided by nature to maintain society.

n         Nature can be managed by humans through the application of technical knowledge used by competent professionals.

n         The proper management philosophy for natural resources is to realize the greatest good for the

greatest number of people over the longest period of time.

Organizations based on this discourse define their objective as conserving or rationally developing our natural resources to meet long term human needs.  They use words such as "ensure wise use of natural resources", or "bring about efficient conservation and development".  In their publications, the focus is on successful instances of rational management of natural resources. The activities of the following types of organizations are generally included in this discourse:

            Gardening Or Beautification Club

            Association Of Natural Resource Users (Joint Industry/Government Associations

,           Recreational Use Groups

            Land Trusts preserving Green Space

            Soil And Water Conservation Organizations

            Watershed Management Groups

            Land Management Groups

 

C. Preservation This discursive frame defines a spiritual and psychological relationship between humans and the natural environment. In this discourse, nature in the form of wilderness, untouched by human activity, has intrinsic value.  Nature also serves as a site for self renewal through the experience of its aesthetic beauty.  This translates into a concern over the preservation of scenic areas, wilderness, and wildlife.  Key components of this perspective are:

n         Natural systems are self-creating evolutionary wholes that cannot be reduced to the sum of their

            parts.  Hence nature is not a machine, but an intact organism.

n         Human actions can impair the ability of natural systems to maintain themselves or to evolve

            further

n         Wilderness &  wildlife are important component in supporting both the physical and spiritual life

            of humans.

n         Human values go beyond those measured by the national income accounts to include the

            preservation of wild lands and life.

n         Continued existence of wilderness and wildlife is critical to the spiritual well being of humanity.

n         Protection of wilderness areas and wildlife for the current and future generations is an essential

            environmental task.

Several key features identify organizations based on this discourse.  First, they define their objective as preserving wilderness in a pristine state, untouched by humans.  This includes leaving all of the plants and wildlife that inhabit that area to develop in a "natural" manner, i.e. unaffected by human influences.  They use words such as "preserve and protect", or "ensure the continued existence of wilderness areas."  Some Preservation organizations focus only on a specific species, or geographic region.  This is reflected in the name of the organization.  Some examples of these types of organizations are "Save the Whales", "Save the Sea Otter", and the "Mono Lake Committee".  Secondly, the magazines produced by these type of organizations celebrates wilderness and wildlife through the use of extraordinary pictures and descriptive articles.  The magazines also describe threats to wilderness areas or wildlife, and the need to take action to preserve them, and report to their membership on the triumphs that the organization has had in preserving a particular species, or wilderness area.  The activities of the following types of organizations are generally included in this discourse:

            Outdoor Camping or Hiking Clubs

            Land Trusts Seeking To Preserve Biodiversity

            Wildlife Protection/Preservation Groups

            Park/Wilderness Preservation Groups

            Aquarium/Museum/Zoo/Botanical Garden


D. Reform Environmentalism  This discursive frame maintains that human prospects for the future are linked to ecosystem conditions.  Based in the natural sciences, and the notion of humanity as part of the earth’s ecosystems, it links human survival to environmental conditions.  In this discourse, nature has a delicate balance, and humans are part of it.  This perspective emphasizes that nature is an ecological system, that is, a web of interdependent relationships.  Humanity is part of this ecological system.  Hence, to maintain a healthy and growing social order, ecologically responsible actions are necessary.  These actions can be developed and implemented through the use of law and the natural sciences.  This perspective animates action to identify and eliminate the physical causes of environmental degradation.  Key components of this perspective are:

n         Natural systems are the basis of all organic existence, including humans

n         Humankind is an element within natural ecosystems, and hence human survival is linked to ecosystem survival.

n         Ethical human actions (actions which promote the good life for humankind) necessarily promote action toward all life on earth in an ecologically responsible manner.

n         Proper use of natural sciences can guide the relationship between humanity and its natural environment.

Organizations based in this discourse identify their organization's purpose as protecting the earth's ecosystem, and the human condition overall.  The purpose of these organizations tends to use phrases along the following lines:  "to protect and enhance human welfare and combat environmental deterioration", or "this organization is dedicated to improving environmental quality."  The magazines produced by these type of organizations contain descriptions of ecological problems, and propose ways to remedy them.  In general, the descriptions of the problems are very analytic, and based in the natural sciences.  The proposed remedy is usually some form of law or regulation to be enforced by government, or tax incentives to use market forces, to either clean up or reduce the ecological problem.  In addition, successes of organizational initiatives are listed that generally appears as a regular feature of the magazine.   Organizations in this discursive frame generally focus on the following areas:

            Population Control

            Specific Environmental Pollution Problem

            Environmental Litigation

 

E.  Environmental Justice  This perspective sees ecological problems occurring because of the structure of society and the imperatives this structure creates for the continued exploitation of both humans and nature.  Hence, the resolution of environmental problems requires fundamental social change.  The link between human survival and ecosystem survival defined by Environmentalism is accepted.  However, instead of focusing on the physical causes of environmental degradation, this frame sees environmental problems as creations of human social order.  Hence the solution of environmental problems lies in social change.  Key components of this viewpoint are:

n         Domination of humans by other humans leads to domination of nature.

n         The economic system & nation-state are the core structures of society that create ecological problems.

n         Commoditization &  market imperatives force consumption to continually increase in the developed economy.

n         Environmental destruction in low income/racially distinct communities, or third world countries originates in the exploitation of the people who live in these areas by the dominant social institutions.

n         Resolution of environmental problems requires fundamental social change based on empowerment of local communities.

Regardless of their specific focus, groups based in the discourse of environmental justice define their objective as changing the social order in some manner to solve environmental problems.  The means to carry out this goal include holding government and corporations accountable through democratic processes, or by bringing legal suits to end toxic waste dumping. Some organizations with this orientation describe the purpose of their organization in terms such as "Create economic democracy through localized decision-making",  "Develop grass roots capabilities to involve local citizens in resolution of their communities environmental problems.", or "Abolish environmental racism". The magazines of these organizations are focused on strategies and opportunities for change.  They report on successes of how these changes were achieved, and provide guidance designed to enable citizens to take effective action.  Groups in this discursive frame are generally local or regional in nature, and include a number of hybrid civil rights/environmental justice organizations.

 

F.   Environmental Health  In this discourse, Human health is the outcome of a number of interactions with physical, chemical, biological and social factors in the natural environment. Additionally, human health is directly impacted by toxic substances and pollution.  To ensure community health requires a livable and healthy community, with adequate social services, and elimination of exposures to toxic or polluting substances.  Key components of this discourse are:

n         Human health is a collective property based on community characteristics

n         Exposure to toxic chemicals or other pollutants results in a deterioration of community health

n         To preserve human health, a clean and unpolluted community environment is needed

Organizations with this discursive frame focus on the identification and elimination of sources of pollution that impact community health.

 

G.  Deep Ecology   In this discourse, nature is seen as a value in its own right, independent of human existence.  Humanity is only one species among many, and has no right to dominate the earth and all of the other living organisms.  This creates an ethic of radical wilderness advocacy.  Unlike Preservation, which seeks to keep what remains, Deep Ecology seeks the restoration of fully functioning ecosystems, in which the evolution of life, unaffected by human actions, can continue.  It also advocates the inherent rights of all nonhuman beings to exist in their natural state.  In this sense, Deep Ecology makes a moral argument for the preservation of the natural environment.  Key components of this discourse are:

n         The richness and diversity of all life on earth has intrinsic value.

n         Humankind's relations to the natural world presently endanger the richness and diversity of life.

n         Human life is privileged only to the extent of satisfying vital needs.

n         Maintenance of the diversity of life on earth mandates a decrease in the human impacts on the natural environment, and substantial increases in the wilderness areas of the globe.

n         Changes (consistent with cultural diversity) affecting basic economic, technological, and cultural aspects of society are therefore necessary.

Organizations based in Deep Ecology generally define their objectives as acting to preserve the rights of all nonhuman beings to a natural existence, unaffected by human intervention.  These organizations use words such as "intrinsic rights of species to life" or "placing ecological considerations first in any decision making process" to define their purpose.  The publications of these types of organizations are almost always printed on newsprint.  The articles in these publications  focus on assaults on living species, and interventions by the organization in their behalf.  Using headlines such as "Dolphins Kidnapped" to describe an aquariums capture of dolphins for exhibit, these magazines describe the destruction of wilderness and wildlife as assaults on the inherent rights of these beings.  In addition, since many Deep Ecology magazines engage in direct action to realize their goals, the magazines detail the exploits of the members of the organization as heroes protecting all living beings. Organizations in this discursive frame generally take the following forms:

            Alternative Communities/Bioregionalists

            Direct Action Wilderness Protection Groups

            Radial Wilderness Advocacy Groups

 

H. Ecofeminism  This discourse ties the development of a patriarchal society, and the domination of women by men, to the domination of nature by humanity.  In this discourse, nature is a living web in which humanity is enmeshed.  Ecosystem abuse is rooted in androcentric concepts & institutions.  Specifically, the origin of the problem of ecological degradation is the treatment of nature as an object to be possessed and dominated, instead of a partner to be cooperated with.  This cultural treatment of nature is tied to the development of an patriarchal society, and the domination of women by men.  Just as man dominates women, humanity dominates nature.  The resolution of our ecological problems thus entails a shift from a manipulative and controlling culture toward both women and nature to a culture of co-operation.  Relations of complementarity rather than superiority between culture/nature, human/nonhuman, and male/female are needed to resolve the conflict between the human and natural worlds.   Key components of this discourse are:

n         Earth is home for all life and should be revered &  nurtured.

n         Ecosystem abuse is rooted in androcentric concepts, values, and institutions.

n         Relations of complementarily rather than superiority between culture/nature, human/nonhuman, and male/female are needed to resolve both patriarch and environmental degradation.

n         The many problems of human relations, and relations between the human and nonhuman

            worlds, will not be resolved until androcentric institutions, values, and ideology are eradicated.

Ecofeminist organizations generally define their objectives to expand the use- of feminist views into the decision making process regarding the natural environment, such as 'promote the inclusion of women and their environmental perceptions in the design and implementation of development and environmental policies.'”  magazine: The magazines of ecofeminist organizations highlight role of women and the home economy in environmental affairs.  They also highlight how effective programs that originate from the perceptions of women can effectively deal with environmental issues.

 

I. Ecospiritualism  For this discursive frame, nature is God's creation, and humanity has a moral obligation to keep and tend the Creation.  Hence, natural and unpolluted ecosystems and biodiversity need to be preserved.  Key components of this discourse are:

n         Nature is endowed with spiritual value.

n         Humanity, as part of nature, has a moral obligation to preserve it intact.

n         Religious beliefs need to be developed that embody this ethic.

n         These beliefs can then inform actions to create an ecologically sustainable society.

Organizations with this perspective generally take the form of either faith-based or congregation based efforts to preserve the natural environment.  The rationale for action is based on a moral argument regarding the spiritual or religious character of Nature and humanity’s obligation toward it.

 

J.  Animal Rights  In this discursive frame, all species are seen to have intrinsic rights to realize their own evolved characteristics, and to live an independent life free from human direction or intervention.  Key components of this discourse are:

n         All of creation is endowed with an ability to define itself and evolve

n         Life thus has a right to be left to develop according to its own character

n         Humanity has no right to infringe on these rights of animals

 

2.  PRIMARY DISCURSIVE FRAME OF ORGANIZATION:  The second task is to code the single best descriptor of the discursive frame of the organization.  This is a forced choice of one of the discursive frames previously described.

 

3.  GENERALIST/FRAME SPANNER:  The third task is to code whether the organization has a significant presence of two or more discursive frames evident in the file materials.  If two or more discursive frames are identified as strongly present, then the organization is a frame spanner.  This is a forced choice coding.

 

4.  NATURE OF ISSUE FOCUS:  Task four is to characterize the issue focus of the organization according to the following definitions. 

 

A.  Narrow focus:  Single or very limited issue focus, related only to one issue or topic.

 

B.  Broad, multi-issue focus:  Focus on a number of environmentally related issues

 

3.  Multi-movement focus:  Embraces a very wide range of issues, including those outside of environmental concerns, such as human rights, civil rights, economic equity, etc.

 

5.  CLARITY OF GOAL DEFINITION  Task five involves a characterization of the clarity of the goal of the organization into one of the following categories:

 

A.  Vague:  Difficult to discern what the overall goal of the organization is, or what it seeks to accomplish.

 

B.  Implicit:  Although not directly stated, the overall goal of the organization can be discerned from the textual materials in the file.

 

C.  Well Defined:  Specific, well defined goal identifiable in the textual materials of the organization.

 

6.  RHETORICAL FORM OF DISCOURSE:  The sixth task is to characterize the way in which the environmental organization constructs its texts.  There are three styles that texts can be constructed in.  One of these forms of rhetoric should be chosen.

 

A.  Conservative  A style of language use that accepts and legitimates the basic order of society.  It accepts and reaffirms the dominant cultural beliefs of society and the current power structure as legitimate.  Questions about the status quo and existing relationships of power are not raised.  Conservative environmental texts generally focus on a narrow incremental goals that can marginally improve particular environmental problems.

 

B.  Managerial  A style of language use that accepts that the basic order of society is legitimate, but proposes marginal changes within the existing social order.  Some of the aspects of the dominant cultural beliefs and power structure are seen as either illegitimate or outdated.  But the amount of this problem in the dominant cultural beliefs is not great enough to reject the social order.  Rather, society is seen as basically sound, but in need of some fixes- This results in a discourse that identifies problems and then suggests remedies that can be brought about within the existing social structure.  Managerial environmental texts generally use scientific information to illustrate a specific problem, and then identify specific policy measures that can be implemented within existing social institutions to mitigate or rectify a particular problem.

 

C.  Confrontational  A style of language use that challenges the legitimacy of the existing social order and forwards alternatives.  This style of language rejects the legitimacy of the basic order of society.  This includes a rejection of the dominant cultural beliefs and existing power structure.  Instead. an alternative set of cultural beliefs is forwarded and advocated.  Confrontational environmental texts identify environmental problems as being so fundamentally tied to our current social order that solutions to them lie in another way of organizing human relations to the physical and natural environment.  These texts then attempt to develop an alternative ways to organize social order.

 

7.  STRATEGY TO BRING ABOUT SOCIAL CHANGE:  The seventh task is to characterize the way in which the environmental organization attempts to realize its objectives.  Social movement organizations engage in a vast array of particular activities.  Underlying these activities, there are implicit theories of how to bring about social change (Lofland 1996).  The coding task is to identify which one of the seven categories best describes the implicit strategy on which the organization bases its action.  One of the following strategies should be chosen.

 

A.  Transcendence:  This approach to social change focuses on rapidly changing what people believe.  Organizations following this strategy attempt to create a new society by bringing about a shift in consciousness.  By changing what people believe, a new society would emerge.  Application of this strategy in the environmental movement entails the use of consciousness raising procedures, and artistic or aesthetic presentations that convey an environmental viewpoint.

 

B.  Education:  The education strategy entails the collection and systematic dissemination of information.  This strategy envisions that by collecting and communicating information to the public, the power of reason would convince the public to act to bring about the desired social change- In environmental organizations, this strategy involves activities such as; developing and disseminating environmental education materials, producing documentary films, and operating environmental education centers.

 

C.  Intellectual:  Although similar to education, this strategy of social change is premised on the belief that new insights, developed by intellectuals, will lead to social change.  By developing these ideas, and then educating the activists and politicians about them, this strategy envisions that a new politics would be enabled.  In the environmental movement, this strategy serves as the basis for the actions of university and environmental research institutes, and individual writers.

 

D.  Parliamentarian:  This strategy for social change involves working through the existing power structures to bring about change.  This strategy is premised on the idea that the existing social institutions provide a workable means to address the specific problem.  The key focus of this strategy is to develop 'workable' and 'realistic' proposals that can be implemented.  In the environmental movement, this strategy involves these organization in legislative and regulatory development, judicial actions, such as suits, and developing actions 'in partnership' with corporations, and governmental agencies.

 

E.  Protest:  The protest strategy involves a shift away from attempting to change society through  presentation of reasoned arguments.  Instead, change is based on forcing consideration of movement issues through direct action.  This strategy seeks to require concessions by developing actions that lead to the disruption of regular routines.  To restore regular social routines, the changes demanded by the protestors must be fulfilled.  In the environmental movement, this is enacted in various forms of civil disobedience, ranging from sit ins, tree sitting, blocking roads, and street demonstrations.

 

F.  Prophecy:  The prophecy strategy entails a radical rejection of the dominant social order.  Rather than seeking changes within society, this approach to social change involves the creation of separate communities based on an alternative world view.  This strategy is based upon the notion that the dominant social order can be replaced by creation and expansion of alternative communities and ways of life.  In the environmental movement, this is strategy takes the form of  attempts of moral regeneration through the creation of communes, and other alternative institutions.

 

G.  Sabotage/Terrorism:  This strategy, although similar to protest, views social change as coming about through the continuous disruption of regular social routines.  By undertaking illegal actions against proper or people, this strategy hopes to force collapse of the established practices, and to open room for the substitution of alternative practices and institutions.  In the environmental movement, this takes the form of monkeywrenching, violent street protests,  burning of SUVs or undesired building developments.

 


CODING INSTRUCTIONS

 

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND GOVERNANCE

 

Coding of the organization’s internal structure involves a review of the bylaws to determine the degree of democracy in the organization.  This was based on Devall's strategy (Devall,1970).  In this study, he developed a series of criteria to typify the organizational type that characterized the Sierra Club.  Based on Michels (1915) and Lipset (1956), this index contains nine variables.  These criteria are operationalized by answering the question(s) listed below each area in italics through a review of the bylaws and literature of the organization.

 

Amount of Bureaucracy - Organizations with large, professional staffs are less democratic than those organizations with smaller staffs.

1.         Does the organization have a professional staff?

 

Structure of Organization - Organizations with a pluralist, decentralized structure, with the opportunity for multiple centers of power to exist are more democratic than centralized organizations.

2.  Does the organization have chapters or subgroups?

 

Status of Leaders and Members - Organizations with a small amount of status incongruity between the leaders and members of the organization will be more democratic than organizations where this incongruity is high.

3.  Are there limits to the number of terms that can be served by members of the Board of Directors, or officers of the organization?

4.  Are the members of the Board of Directors or officers of the organization elected?

 

Development of Organizational Goals - Organizations where the overall goals and programs of the organization are fluid and changeable are more democratic than organizations with a fixed set of goals, and the decisions implementing them are seen as technical or administrative matters.

5.  Is there a provision for a referendum to be held in the bylaws?

6.  Are there provisions for members to communicate with the Board of Directors or officers of the organization?

7.  Does the organization's literature contain information on the income and expenses of the organization?

 

Internal Conflict - Organizations with a moderate level of conflict are more democratic than organizations that do not have any defined cleavage and Circulation of Dissenting Opinions - Organizations where members are able to receive dissenting opinions are more democratic than organizations where members cannot receive this information (Combined for coding procedures.)

8.  Does the organization's literature contain dissenting opinions regarding organizational matters of policy/program initiatives?

 

Characteristics of Members Level of Knowledge of Organization - Organizations with interested and informed members are more democratic than organizations with apathetic members.

9.   Are board meetings required to be public?

10.  Does the organization's literature contain the results of a Board of Director's meeting?

11.  Does the organization's literature contain results of an election?

 

Power Distribution - Organizations with no overwhelming faction are more democratic than an organization with one faction holding a strong majority position in power.

12.  Are there requirements for some form of proportional representation on the Board of Directors?

13.  Can members nominate individuals to run for election to the Board of Directors or as officers of the organization?

14.  Can members vote for members of the Board of Directors or officers?


Participation Skills - Organizations with opportunities for members to learn how to participate in organizational politics outside of the control of the official hierarchy are more democratic than organizations where these skills can only be learned by participating within the hierarchy.

15.  Are the rules for elections specified in the bylaws?

16.  Does the organization's literature contain notice of a meeting of the Board of Directors?

17.  Does the organization's literature contain notice of an election?

 

18  Organizational Structure:  Based on the results of this series of questions, each organization is assigned to a type of organization using the following criteria.

1.  Oligarchy - Governed by Board of Directors.  The Board of Directors is a self replicating mechanism and elects the officers of the organization.  No provisions for individual member input exist.

2.  Representative - Members can elect representatives for their local chapter of the organization.  These representatives then participate in the selection of the board of directors, officers, and policies of the organization.

3.  Limited Democracy - Governed by mix between Board of Directors and members.  Individual members can nominate/elect some of the members of the board of directors or officers of the organization.  However, certain aspects of organizational control are specifically delegated to the Board of Directors.

4.  Democracy - Governed by members.  Board of Directors and Officers of the Organization are nominated and elected by membership.  Policies of the organization can be debated and voted upon by individual members.


APPENDIX

 

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ASSOCIATIONS KEY WORDS

 

Acid Rain

Adirondacks

Agroforestry

Alleghenies

Alpine

Alternative Lifestyles

Alternative Technology

Animal Rights

Animal Welfare

Animals

Appalachian

Appropriate Technology

Bicycle

Biology

Bioregionalism

Bird

Birds Of Prey

Burro

Butterfly

Camping

Canoeing

Cetaceans

Chernobyl

Chimpanzee

Climbing

Conservation

Conservationist

Cougar

Deer

Duck

Eagles

Ecology

Elks

Energy

Environment

Environmental Education

Environmental Health

Environmental Law

Environmental Quality

Evolution

Family Planning

Feminism

Ferret

Fish

Fishing

Food And Drugs

Forest Industries

Forest Owners

Forest Products

Forestry

Gardening

Government Accountability

Great Lakes

Hazardous Materials

Hazardous Wastes

Hiking

Historic Preservation

Home Economics

Hunting

Insects

Irrigation

Land Control

Mollusks

Moose

Natural Disasters

Natural Resources

Nature Religions

New Age

Noise Control

Oceanography

Organic Farming

Outdoor Education

Outdoor Recreation

Owls

Paper

Parks And Recreation

Pollution Control

Population

Primates

Property Rights

Public Lands

Public Transit

Radioactive Waste

Rain Forests

Rangeland

Reptiles

Rural Development

Safaris

Sanitarians

Sanitation

Self-Sufficiency

Sewage

Shooting

Social Action

Social Change

Social Problems

Soil

Soil Conservation

Solar

Solar Energy

Sustainable Agriculture

Toxic Exposure

Waste

Water

Water Conservation

Water Pollution

Whales

Wildlife

Wildlife Conservation

Wind Energy

Women’s Rights

 

 

Table I

 

 

IRS ACTIVITY CODES

 

IRS Code          IRS Category of Organization

350                   Preservation of Natural Resources (Conservation)

351                   Combating or Preventing Pollution (Air, Water, Etc.)

352                   Land Acquisition for Preservation

353                   Soil or Water Conservation

354                   Preservation of Scenic Beauty

355                   Wildlife Sanctuary or Refuge

379                   Other Conservation, Environmental or Beautification Activity

529                   Ecology or Conservation Advocacy

541                   Population Control Advocacy

 

TABLE II

 


NTEE ACTIVITY CODES

 

NTEE Code       Category of Organization

C00                  Environmental Quality Protection,  Beautification

C01                  Environmental Alliance/Advocacy Organizations

C02                  Management & Technical Assistance

C03                  Professional Societies, Associations

C05                  Research Institutes and/or Public Policy Analysis

C11                  Single Organization Support

C12                  Fund Raising and/or Fund Distribution

C19                  Monetary Support N.E.C.

C20                  Pollution Abatement and Control Services

C27                  Recycling Programs

C30                  Natural Resources Conservation and Protection

C32                  Water Resource, Wetlands Conservation and Management

C34                  Land Resources Conservation

C35                  Energy Resources Conservation and Development

C36                  Forest Conservation

C40                  Botanical, Horticultural, and Landscape Services

C41                  Botanical Gardens, Arboreta and Botanical Organizations

C42                  Garden Club, Horticultural Program

C50                  Environmental Beautification and Aesthetics

C60                  Environmental Education and Outdoor Survival Programs

C99                  Environmental Quality, Protection, and Beautification N.E.C.

D01                  Animal Related Alliance/Advocacy Organizations

D20                  Animal Protection and Welfare

D30                  Wildlife Preservation, Protection

D31                  Protection of Endangered Species

D32                  Bird Sanctuary, Preserve

D33                  Fisheries Resources

D34                  Wildlife Sanctuary, Refuge

E01                  Health Alliance/Advocacy Organizations

K25                  Farmland Preservation

N32                  Parks and Playgrounds

W01                 Public, Society Benefit Alliance/Advocacy Organizations

W05                 Public, Society Benefit Research Institutes and/or Public Policy Analysis

 

TABLE III

 


 

CODING SHEET

 

IN/OUT DECISION

 

 

 

NAME OF ORGANIZATION:

 

URL:

A. 
IN/OUT DECISION

0. Out

1. In

2. Discuss/Uncertain

IN/OUT

 

B.  OUT REASON CODE

1. Local                                    6. Humane Society  

2. Govt. Org                              7. Recreation          

3. Trade Assoc                          8. For Profit      

4. Foundation                            9. No Environmental Improvement Goal

5. Anti-Environmental Org

  

REASON CODE

 

 

 

 

 

CODING SHEET - ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS


1 & 2. NATURE OF SMO

1. Advocacy Org                      5. Scientific Assoc                    9.    Environmental Ed             13. Humane Society

2. Think Tank/Research Inst     6. Prof Assoc                            10.  Recreation                         14. Other

3. Univ Affil  Research Inst.      7. Zoo/aquarium/etc                11.  Foundation

4. Govt Affil Assoc                    8.  Land Trust                          12.  Plant/Animal Prop

#1. Primary

#2. Secondary

3.  GROUP SCOPE                 0. Unknown              2.  National

                                                1. International        3.  Regional

 

4.  MEMBERSHIP                    0. Unknown/Not Indicated

                                                1. Non-membership

                                                2. Membership Org

 

5.  MEMBERSHIP BASE         0. Unknown/None                     2. Organizations only              4. Umbrella/Network/Coalition

                                                1. Individuals                           3. Mixed: individuals & orgs      5. Other/unspecified    

 

6.  ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE                         0.  Unknown

                                                                                1.  Independent Organization

                                                                                2.  Federation

 

7.  ANNUAL CONVENTION OR MEETING                0   Unknown/Not indicated       2.  Annual

                                                                                1.  None                                  3.  More than one time/year

 

TACTICS 8-23

ABSENT- 0

PRESENT-1

8.    Political Advocacy/Lobbying

 

 

9.    Litigation/Legal Advocacy

 

 

10.  Economic Boycott

 

 

11.  Scientific Advocacy

 

 

12.  Public Opinion/Information Advocacy

 

 

13.  Educational Advocacy

 

 

14.  Moral/Spiritual Advocacy

 

 

15.  Aesthetic Advocacy

 

 

16.  Community Organizing

 

 

17.  Protest Activities/Demonstrations

 

 

18.  Direct Action

 

 

19.  Offer Grants/Funds

 

 

20.  Support Services

 

 

21.  Produce/Sell Products

 

 

22.  Physical Activities/Buy Land

 

 

23.  Mass Communications/Media Techniques

 

 

DISCURSIVE FRAME 24-34

NOT PRESENT - 0

PRESENT - 1

STRONG PRESENCE - 2

24. Wildlife Management

 

 

 

25. Conservation

 

 

 

26. Preservation

 

 

 

27. Reform Environmentalism

 

 

 

28. Environmental Justice

 

 

 

29. Environmental Health

 

 

 

30. Deep Ecology

 

 

 

31. Ecofeminism

 

 

 

32. Ecospiritualism

 

 

 

33. Animal Rights

 

 

 

34. Other Discourse

 

 

 

35.  PRIMARY DISCURSIVE FRAME OF ORGANIZATION   (Forced Choice - Only One Code Allowed)

1. Wildlife Management                          5. Environmental Justice         9.   Ecospiritualism

2. Conservation                                        6. Environmental Health          10. Animal Rights

3. Preservation                                         7. Deep Ecology                      11. Other Discourse

4. Reform Environmentalism                   8. Ecofeminism

 

36. GENERALIST/FRAME SPANNER                      0.  No

                                                                                1.  Yes

 

37.  ISSUE FOCUS                                                  0.  Unknown

                                                                                1.  Narrow focus

                                                                                2.  Broad, multi-issue focus

                                                                                3.  Multi-movement focus

 

38.  GOAL DEFINITION                                            0.  Unknown

                                                                                1.  Vague

                                                                                2.  Implicit

                                                                                3.  Well Defined

 

39.  FORM OF DISCOURSE                                    0.  Unknown

                                                                                1.  Conservative

                                                                                2.  Managerial

                                                                                3.  Confrontational

 

40 & 41.  STRATEGY                                               0.  Unknown                             4.  Parliamentarian

                                                                                1.  Transcendence                   5.  Protest

                                                                                2.  Education                           6.  Prophecy

                                                                                3.  Intellectual                         7.  Sabotage/Terrorism

#38

Primary

#39

Secondary

 

 



 

 

CODING SHEET - ORGANIZATIONAL GOVERNANCE AND BYLAWS

 

Based on the information contained in the attached organizational bylaws and other material, indicate if information related to the following items appears.

 

CATEGORY

NO (0)

YES (1)

42.  Does the organization have a professional staff?

 

 

 

43.  Does the organization have chapters (sub groups)?

 

 

 

44.  Are there term limits for members of the Board of Directors?

 

 

 

45.  Are there term limits for the executive officers (President, Vice President, etc.) of the organization?

 

 

46.  Are there term limits for the Executive Director of the organization?

 

 

 

 

 

NO

(0)

YES, BY CURRENT BOARD OF  DIRECTORS (1)

YES, BY REP. OF MEMBERS (2)

YES, DIRECTLY BY MEMBERS (3)

47.  Are members of the Board of Directors elected?

 

 

 

 

48.  Are the executive officers of the organization elected?

 

 

 

 

49.  Is the Executive Director elected?

 

 

 

 

 

NO (0)

YES (1)

50.  Is there a provision for a referendum to be held in the bylaws?

 

 

 

51.  Does the organization's literature contain information on the income and expenses of the organization?

 

 

52.  Are there provisions for members to communicate with the Board of Directors or officers of the organization?

 

 

53.  Does the organization's literature contain dissenting opinions regarding organizational matters of policy/program initiatives?

 

 

54.  Are board meetings required to be public?

 

 

 

55.  Does the organization's literature contain the results of a Board of Director's meeting?

 

 

56.  Does the organization's literature contain results of an election?

 

 

 

57.  Are there requirements for some form of proportional representation on the Board of Directors?

 

 

58.  Can members nominate individuals to run for election to the Board of Directors or as officers of the organization?

 

 

59.  Are the rules for elections specified in the bylaws?

 

 

 

60.  Does the organization's literature contain notice of a meeting of the Board of Directors?

 

 

61.  Does the organization's literature contain notice of an election?

 

 

 

62.   FORM OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE)            1.         Oligarchy

                                                                                    2.         Representative

                                                                                    3.         Limited Democracy

                                                                                    4.         Democracy